Fleming Family History

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  • ID: I377
  • _UID: 6784198BF02C464DA254780EA68E532263AA
  • Name: John HOWLAND
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: ABT 1592 in Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, England 1 2 3 4 5
  • Christening: 16 Jan 1602/1603 Cambridgeshire, Ely, England 6
  • Death: 23 Feb 1672/1673 in Rocky Nook, Kingston, MA 1 7 2 8 9 10 11 12 4 5
  • Burial: 25 Feb 1672/1673 Burial Hill, Plymouth, Plymouth, MA 6 13 4 5
  • Note: 14 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 16 2 13 17 18 2 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 26 26 26 27 15 28 29 15 15 15 30 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 38 39 40 40 41

    "One hundred and eighteen years ago, L.M. Howland contributed a short article to the Register in which he discussed the origins of the Howland family in America. Earlier American genealogists had attempted to demonstrate the relationship of the emigrant John Howland and the Howlands of Essex, England, later of London and Surrey, basing their assertions on a pedigree at the Heralds? College in London. In his article, Howland reported on Col. Joseph Lemuel Chester?s researches in London, which showed that the emigrant John Howland was not a younger son of the London branch of the family. (Half a century later it would be proven that the origins of the American family lay in Fenny Stanton, Huntingdonshire, rather than in Essex."

    "John Howland was born in 1593 or 1594, as he was ?above eighty years,? or ?in his eightieth year? when he died in February 1673 (PCR 8:34). This means that he was about fourteen years older than Elizabeth Tilley when he married her ca. 1623, based on the estimated birth date of their first child, Desire Howland, which was ca. 1624. He would have been twenty-six or twenty-seven when he sailed to America. It has been argued by Johnson that Howland was more likely to have been born in 1599, but based on the evidence of his age at the time of his death even the traditional date of 1592 would seem to be a year or two too early"

    John Howland grew up in Fenstanton, a town 9 miles NW of Cambridge on the old Roman Road. No baptismal record has been found but he was said to have been "above 80 years" when he died in 1672.

    John Howland was a passenger on the Mayflower, which sailed from Plymouth, England, in the autumn of 1620. He was the indentured manservant of Mr. John Carver, a wealthy Londoner, who became the first governor of New Plimoth Colony in MA. On 11 Nov 1620, John Howland was the 13th man to sign the Mayflower Compact.

    He was called by Governor William Bradford "a lusty younge man". During one of the severe autumn storms which hit during the voyage, John Howland was washed overboard. In Governor Bradford's words "It pleased God that he caught hould of ye halliards which hunge over board, and rane out at length; yet he was held up ... and then with a boat hooke and other means got into ye ship again".

    When they arrived in Plymouth, Governor Carver's family consisted of John Carver, his wife Kathrine, John Howland, Desire Minter, a man servant named Roger Wilder, a boy named Jasper More, a boy named William Latham, and an unnamed servant maid. When Elizabeth Tilley's parents, John and Joan Tilley, and her uncle, Edward Tilley, died the first winter, Elizabeth Tilley became part of the Carver household. Roger Wilder died the first winter. Governor Carver died a few months later, in April 1621, and his wife died in May 1621. Jaspar More died 6 Dec 1621 and the servant maid died soon after. That left John Howland as the head of the household containing four people, including Elizabeth Tilley, Desire Minter and the boy, William Latham.

    The early records of the Colony of New Plymouth contain an account of the Division of Land in 1623 in which John Howland, as head of a household, received four acres "on the Southside of the brook to the woodward".
    He was on the Freeman list in 1633 but was head of one of 12 companies dividing livestock in 1627. He could have inherited Carver's money after Governor Carver died in the spring following their arrival in Plymouth. It has been said that John Howland immediately bought his freedom, but no record has survived.

    In 1626 John Howland was one of the 42 colonists who assumed Phymouth Colony's debt of 1800 pounds owed to the Merchant Adventurers on London. In order to pay off this mortgage, a monopoly in the colony's trade was granted to William Bradford, Isaac Allerton and Myles Standish, who chose John Howland as one of their partners, or undertakers, in the project. Later, they established a trading post far to the northward, on the Kennebec River, at the present site of Augusta, Maine. John was put in charge of the trading post and a brisk trade developed there in beaver, otter and other furs gathered by the Indians. John's family may have spent some time with him in Maine, and some of his children may have been born there.

    P Ch R: 1:144 held hands in ordination P Ch R: 1:147 "He was a good old disciple and had bin sometimes a magistrate here, a plaine-hearted christian"
    !SOURCE: John Howland of the Mayflower, V.1 Came on Mayflower as servant to John Carver. On 1633 freeman list. Will dated 29 May 1672, inventory 3 Mar 1672/3, mentions wife Elizabeth; oldest son John Howland; sons Jabez and Joseph; youngest son Isaac; daughters Desire Gorham, Hope Chipman, Elizabeth Dickenson, Lydai Browne, Hannah Bosworth, and Ruth Cushman; and granddaughter Elizabeth Howland, daughter of his son John.
    !from Pioneers of Mass: "Signed Mayflower Compact; took an active part in the early explorations. Settled at Plymouth. Town officer; a partner in the Trading Company of the Colony;Asst. or deputy almost continually. Prominent in the church, so that he "assisted in the imposition of hands" upon Rev. John Cotton, Jr. when he was ordained pastor 30 Jun 1669. He died "a profitable instrument of good; the last man that was left of those that came over in the ship called the May Flower that arrived at Plymouth." (Plym. Col. Rec. VII, 34) (copy of this in file)
    !have picture of stone per EPITAPHS OF BURIAL HILL by Kingman Here ended the Pilgirmage of John Howland and Elizabeth his wife. She was the dau'tr of Gov. Carver (this is a mistake) They arrived in the Mayflower Dec. 1620; they had 4 sons & 6 dau'trs from whom are descended a numerous posterity "1672 Efb'y 23d John Howland of Plymouth deceased, he lived to the age of 80 yr's. He was the last man that was left of those that came overin the Ship called the Mayflo wer that lived in Plymouth
    Ref to CHRISTENING: Stoddard, Francis R., The Truth About the Pilgrims, Reprint, Baltimore, 1973, p 138.
    Ref to DEATH: Mayflower Descendants, 18:69; Roberts, Gary Boyd, Mayflower Source Records, Baltimore, 1986, p 548.
    Ref to BURIAL: Gravesite viewed August 20, 1994 by Patricia, Carol & Dale Fink.

    The identity of this family is proved by the probate records of John's brother. Humphrey Howland, a draper, settled in St. Swithin's Parish in London. In his will written in London 28 May 1646 and proved 10 July 1646 by his second wife Anne, he mentions his brothers Arthur, John, and Henry and his sister Margaret, wife of Richard Phillips of Fenstanton, shoemaker, his "nephew" Simon Howland, and his "niece" Hannah Howland, Simon's sister. Additional information about John Howland's family is found in the intestate estate of another brother, George Howland who was a merchant of St. Dunstan's, East London. His estate was administered by his brother Humphrey Howland's wife, Anne, 11 July 1646.

    A Simon Howland was baptized in Fenstanton 19 Aug 1604 , called "son of Henrye" and was probably the Simon Howland who was apprenticed 19 March 1622 to Humphrey Howland, citizen and draper of London.

    ? An original letter from a genealogist in England [Chester, Joseph L., "Pedigrees of the Families of Howland of Essex County, England and of Plymouth Mass.": London, 1879], in 1879, mentions "the extraordinary fact that I find the surname of Howland in no other county in England than Essex, and originally in no other locality in that county except at Newport and Wicken and their immediate vicinity. Wherever at later periods I have found Howlands in other counties, as Hertfordshire, Surrey, Berks, etc., I have invariably traced them back to Newport and Wicken. It is clear that several families of the name were living there contemporaneously and equally so that they were all in some way connected...at the period of the birth of John Howland of the Mayflower, there were living then no less than five Howlands..." In two of these lines, the Howland name terminated in heiresses, one of whom, Elizabeth by name, bequeathed the Streatham Estates to her husband, the Duke of Bedford, who then acquired the additional title of Baron Howland.
    John Howland of the Mayflower was born in 1592, the son of Henry Howland, of Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire (near Newport, County Essex). [Howland, William, Editor and Compiler), "The Howlands in America": The York Press Co., Govverneur, N. Y., 1939] He had at least four brothers: Arthur, George, Henry, and Humphrey. His brothers Arthur and Henry came to America [Ibid, and "Records of Plymouth Colony] about 1623/4 and later joined the Society of Friends. Early records reveal that Arthur, whose home was in Marshfield, was fined many times for "permitting of a Quaker?s meeting in his house." When he refused to pay the fines, he was sent to jail. Henry was fined for entertaining Quakers, at the Court of March, 1658.
    In mid-Atlantic, during a violent storm, John Howland was almost drowned when a mountainous wave swept him overboard. Grasping a halyard which was trailing astern of the Mayflower, although at first he was several fathoms under water, he finally managed to haul himself to the surface. He was then rescued, by means of a boathook along with the rope, etc. [Bradford, William, "History of Plimouth Plantation," 1912 ed., Massachusetts Historical Society, page 151.]
    By November 11, 1620, he had sufficiently recuperated from his oceanic adventure to be the thirteenth signer of the Mayflower Compact. And a few days later, December 6, he was one of the ten chosen to make the third exploration along the shore. On this occasion, they were attacked by the Indians at Eastham, Cape Cod. In Bradford?s journal, we learn that the mast of the shallop broke during a sudden squall, and the sail was lost overboard. "The weather was very cold, and it froze so hard...the spray of the sea lighting on their coats, they were as if they had been glazed." [Ibid.]
    John Howland was one of Governor Carver?s family. Both Governor Carver and his wife were among the fifty Pilgrims who died during the first few months of the struggle for survival at Plymouth. It is believed that John Howland inherited John Carver?s estate, as the Carvers had no children of their own.
    About 1626, John Howland was one of those (including Bradford, Brewster, Standish, etc.) who assumed the Colony?s debt to the Merchant Adventurer, 1800 pounds. At least as early as 1633-35, he was an Assistant or member of the Governor?s Council, and from 1641 to 1670 was frequently a deputy or representative to the General Court. In 1634, he commanded the Pilgrim?s Trading Post at Kennebec (Maine).

    Nathanial Morton wrote "The 23th of February 1672 Mr. John Howland senir of the Town of Plymouth Deceased; hee was a Godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ; hee lived untill he attained above eighty yeares in the world, hee was one of the first Comers into this land and proved a usefull Instrument of Good in his place & was the last man that was left of those that Came over in the shipp Called the May Flower, that lived in Plymouth; hee was with honor Intered att the Towne of Plymouth on the 25 of February 1672."

    "? Mayflower Passengers: Classified by Williston (in "Saints & Strangers," Williston, George F., New York, 1945, page 134) into four groups:
    1) Saint
    2) Stranger
    3) Hired hand
    4) Servant
    Indentured Servants :
    "There was a fourth and much larger group sharply set off from all the others ? the indentured servants. These were not servants in our sense of the word. They were not housemaids, butlers, cooks, valets, or general flunkies to wait upon the personal needs of the Pilgrims. On the contrary, they were brought along to do the heaviest kind of labor. They were to fell trees, hew timbers, build houses, clear fields and plough them, tend crops, gather the harvest, and do whatever their mas-ters ordered. During the period of their indenture, which usually ran for seven years, they were fed, clothed, and housed by their masters, but received no wages, being virtually slaves, and were frequently bought, sold, and hired out as such.
    "Eleven of the eighteen servants on board were strong young men, a sixth of the adult company. For the most part they belonged to the Leyden group, which suggests that if the Saints were poor, the Strangers were still poorer.
    "As befitted a man of his wealth, John Carver had four ? for his wife, a boy and a maid; for himself, Roger Wilder and John Howland, "a lustie yonge man," who quickly made a name for himself at Plymouth.
    "The William Whites had two, as had the Winslows, one being George Soule of Eckington, Worcestershire, who was destined, like Howland, to rise to some prominence after he had served his time.

    Saints & Strangers, page 136:
    "Then, suddenly, the weather changed as fierce storms came roaring out of the west. For days at a time it was impossible to carry a yard of sail, the ship drifting under bare poles with the helmsman desperately trying to hold her into the wind as she wallowed through mountainous seas which often had her lying on her beam-ends. The pounding of heavy seas opened up many seams in the deck and superstructure, letting cascades of icy water down upon the ill and frightened passengers curled up in their narrow bunks below.
    "Unable to endure it any longer in the stuffy hold, John Howland came on deck one day and was immediately swept overboard. The ship happened to be trailing some of the topsail halyards, and Howland managed to get hold of these and hang on ?though he was sundrie fadomes under water,? till he was pulled in with a boat hook. He was ?something ill with it, yet he lived many years after, and became a profitable member, both in church and commone wealthe.?"

    Saints & Strangers, page 143:
    November 11, 1620
    Signing of "The Compact"
    The covenant was first signed by those who had the right or had assumed the privilege of using the title of "Mr." ? then pronounced "master" and often written so. Relatively the aristocrats of the company, there were twelve of this group, with Saints and Strangers equally represented.
    John Carver, the most substantial and respectable among them, signed first. He was followed by Bradford, Winslow, Brewster, and Allerton. Then came Standish, Alden, Deacon Fuller, Christopher Martin, William Mullins, William White, Richard Warren, and Stephen Hopkins. Next, the "goodmen" were asked to sign. (Note: after these 12 signed, John Howland was the 13th to sign.) Only twenty-seven responded; several either declined or were ailing. Lastly, no doubt with the hope that it might make them take their prescribed loyalty more seriously, a few of the servants were invited or commanded to sign ? Edward Dotey, Edward Leister, and two others [George Soule and John Howland]. The women were excluded, of course, for they were not free agents, being the legal chattels and servants of their lords ? indentured for life, as it were.

    Saints & Strangers, page 153:
    On December 6th, with Coffin at the tiller, eighteen men pushed off in the shallop to round the bay and have a look at "Thievish Harbor," or Plymouth, as it had been named by Captain John Smith six years previously. Ten of the Pilgrims had volunteered to go ? of the Saints, Edward and John Tilley, Bradford, Winslow, and Governor Carver with his servant, John Howland; of the Strangers, Captain Standish, Richard Warren, and Stephen Hopkins with one of his servants, Edward Dotey. It was bitterly cold, with a stiff breeze blowing, and the spray whipping across the open boat cut like a knife and froze their clothes till they were "like coates of iron." Many were "sick unto death," Edward Tilley and the master gunner fainted with the cold, but they held to their course, sailing south past Corn Hill and s

    Saints & Strangers, page 162:
    The other side of the street was left open for a timwinging round a sandy point into what is now Wellfleet Bay.e and used as part of the Pilgrims' cornfields. But it was later staked off into lots. That at the foot of Fort Hill was given to Captain Standish so that he might quickly get to his post in time of danger. Just below, at the corner of the Street and the Highway, a large tract was reserved for the Governor?s House. On the slope from the Highway to the beach were the plots of Stephen Hopkins, John Howland, and Deacon Samuel Fuller, the last of the edge of a high bank overlooking Plymouth Rock ? Cole?s Hill, as it came to be called for the popular owner of the pleasant and often boisterous tavern that long stood there.

    Saints & Strangers, pages 319-20:
    Contrary to popular belief, the Pilgrims never hanged a witch, leaving that to the better-schooled but more benighted men of Massachusetts.
    The wife of William Holmes, Standish?s lieutenant, was likewise tried on complaint of one Dinah Sylvester.
    "What evidence have you of the fact?" the Sylvester woman was asked by the presiding magistrate, John Howland.
    "She appeared to me as a witch."
    "In what shape?"
    "In the shape of a bear, your honor."
    "How far off was the bear?"
    "About a stone?s throw from the highway."
    "What manner of tail did the bear have?"
    "I could not tell, your honor, as his head was towards me."
    To discourage such nonsense, Dinah was fined 5 and whipped. And that was the end of witchcraft in the Old Colony, though the law against it long remained on the books.

    Saints and Strangers, page 443:
    Howland, John (1592-1672) - of London
    "a plaine-hearted Christian"
    Evidently inherited Carver's estate and immediately bought his freedom; married Elizabeth Tilley, c. 1624; Purchaser, 1626; Undertaker, 1627-41; asst. governor, 1633-35, and probably 1629-32; in charge of Kennebec trading post at time of Hocking murder, 1634; apparently held somewhat to blame, for never again entrusted with public office; died Swansea; 9 children.
    SOURCE: Saints and Strangers, George F. Willison, Reynal & Hitchcock, New York, 1945.

    ? ENGLISH RESEARCH
    Ever since McClure Meredith Howland discovered in 1937 [Howland Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, January, 1937] that Pilgrim John Howland was a son of Henry Howland of Fen Stanton, Huntingdonshire, England, attempts have been made to find out more about the Huntingdonshire Howlands and specifically to ascertain the names of Pilgrim John Howland?s mother and grandparents.
    In 1948, Leon Clark Hills [Howland Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 1, July, 1949] of Washington, D.C. reported that he had discovered in the parish records of Holy Trinity, Ely, Cambridgeshire, the marriage of a Henry Howland to Alice Ames [should be Ayres] on April 26, 1600 and the subsequent baptism of a son, John, January 16, 1602/3. Mr. Hills stated that further proof should be found before it was accepted that this is the same Henry Howland who lived in Fenstanton.
    The year of birth of the John Howland of Ely is 10 years later than the accepted year of birth of John Howland of Plymouth who died "died 23 February 1672 and lived untill hee attained above eighty yeares in the world." [Mayflower Descendant, 18:49]
    The first time it is stated that Henry Howland of Fenstanton and Henry Howland of Ely are one and the same appears to be in Colonel Stoddard?s book [Stoddard, Francis R., Truth About the Pilgrims (1952), page 138], although he is puzzled by the ten year discrepancy in birth dates.
    Recently our Society engaged Sir Anthony Wagner, Garter Principal King of Arms, to try to establish the ancestry of Henry Howland of Fenstanton and, also, to determine whether he is the same Henry Howland who married Alice Ayres in Ely. Sir Anthony?s conclusion is that they are two separate families and that Henry Howland of Ely also appears on the Ely records as Henry Howlett.
    As far as can be determined at the present time, the Pilgrim John Howland?s family in England is as follows:
    Henry Howland, of the Parish of Fenny (sic) Stanton,
    Huntingdonshire, yeoman, died at Fenstanton, 17 May 1635.
    His wife, Margaret, buried at Fenstanton, 31 July 1629.
    SOURCE: Howland Quarterly, 21-30, 1956, pages 6 &7.

    ? From Gov. Wm. Bradford?s History of Plimoth Plantation::
    "In sundrie of these stormes the winds were so feirce, & ye seas so high, as they could not beare a knote of saile, but were forced to hull, for diverce days togither. And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull, in a mighty storme, a lustie yonge man (called John Howland) coming upon some occasion above ye grattings, was, with a seele of ye shipe throwne into (ye) sea; but it pleased God yt he caught hould of ye top-saile halliards, which hunge over board, & rane out at length; yet he held his hould (though he was sundrie fadomes under water) till he was hald up by ye same rope of ye brime of ye water, and then with a boat hooke and other means got into ye shipe againe, and his life was saved; and though he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years after, and became a profitable member both in church & comone wealthe."
    SOURCE: The Bradford History, pp. 92-3, Comm. of Mass. ed. Wright & Potter, State Printers, Boston 1898; taken from A Chipman Genealogy, Chipman Historics, Norwell, Massachusetts, 1970.

    ? Still another passenger nearly paid with his life for a "minor" disobedience. A dozen or so days into the storm, John Howland, the servant of John Carver, could no longer stand the stench of the crowded tween-decks. The captain, Elder Brewster, and his own master had each forbade any of them to go topside, but if he didn?t get a breath of fresh air soon... Finally, he decided that he was going to get what he wanted, and so up he climbed and out onto the sea-swept main deck. It was like a nightmare outside! The seas around him were mountainous; he?d never seen anything like it ? huge, boiling, gray-green waves lifting and tossing the small ship in their midst, dark clouds roiling the horizon, and the wind shrieking through the rigging ? Howland shuddered, and it was not from the icy blast of "fresh air" that hit him.
    Just then, the ship seemed to literally drop out from beneath him ? it was there, and then it wasn?t ? and the next thing he was falling... He hit the water, which was so cold that it was like being smashed between two huge blocks of ice. Instantly stunned, his last conscious act was to blindly reach out ? and by God?s grace, the ship at that moment was heeled so far over that the lines from her spars were trailing in the water. One of these happened to snake across his wrist, and he closed on it and instinctively hung on.
    According to the U.S. Navy, a man can stand immersion in the North Atlantic in November for about four minutes. There is no telling how long Howland was in the sea, how soon someone spotted him and raised the alarm. When they hauled him aboard he was blue, but he recovered, though he was sick for several days. And he never again stuck his head above deck, until he was invited to do so.
    SOURCE: Marshall, Peter and Manuel, David, The Light and the Glory, Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1977, pages 117-8.

    ? In 1626 John Howland became one of the forty-two colonists who assumed Plymouth Colony?s debt of 1800 owed to the Merchant Adventurers of London. In order to pay off this mortgage, a monopoly in the Colony?s trade was granted to William Bradford, Isaac Allerton and Myles Standish, who chose John Howland as one of their partners, or undertakers, in the project. Later they established a trading post far to the northward, on the Kennebec River, at the present site of Augusta, Maine. John was put in charge of the trading post and a brisk trade developed there in beaver, otter and other furs gathered by the Indians. John?s family may have spent some time with him in Maine, and some of his children may have been born there.
    SOURCE: John Howland of the Mayflower, Vol. 1; White, Elizabeth Pearson, Picton Press, Camden, Maine, 1990, page 4.

    ? HOWLAND, JOHN ? The son of Henry Howland of Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, John came to Plymouth on the 1620 Mayflower as a servant to John Carver. After the death of Carver, he rose rapidly as a leader in the colony. In 1627 he was the head of one of the twelve companies which divided the livestock, and he was one of the eight Plymouth Undertakers who assumed responsibility for the colony?s debt to the Adventurers in return for certain monopoly trade privileges. He was on the 1633 freeman list, and by 1633, if not earlier, was an Assistant, being reelected to this position in 1634 and 1635 (PCR, passim). In 1634 he was in charge of the colony trading outpost on the Kennebec River when Talbot and Hocking were killed (see text). He received a good number of land grants, was elected deputy for Plymouth, served on numerous special committees, and was an important lay leader of the Plymouth Church. The Reverend John Cotton related how at his own ordination as pastor of the church in 1669 "the aged mr John Howland was appointed by the chh to Joyne in imposition of hands" (Ply. Ch. Recs. 1:144). Howland died on 24 February 1672/73 in his eightieth year, and John Cotton noted his passing, "He was a good old disciple, & had bin sometime a magistrate here, a plaine-hearted christian" (Ply. Ch. Recs. 1:147; see also Nathaniel Morton?s eulogy in the text).
    John Howland married, probably ca. 1626, Elizabeth Tilley, q. v. In his will, dated 29 May 1672, inventory 3 March 1672/73, he mentioned his wife Elizabeth; oldest son John Howland; sons Jabez and Joseph; youngest son Isaac; daughters Desire Gorham, Hope Chipman, Elizabeth Dickenson, Lydia Browne, Hannah Bosworth, and Ruth Cushman; and granddaughter Elizabeth Howland, daughter of his son John (MD 2:70). His widow Elizabeth, died at the home of her daughter Lydia Browne, wife of James, at Swansea on 21 December 1687, and in her will, dated 17 December 1686, proved 10 January 1687/88, she said she was seventy-nine years old, and mentioned her sons John, Joseph, Jabez, and Isaac? daughters Lydia Browne, Elizabeth Dickenson, and Hannah Bosworth; son-in-law Mr. James Browne; and grandchildren James Browne, Jabez Browne, Dorothy Browne, Desire Cushman, Elizabeth Bursley, and Nathaniel the son of Joseph Howland (MD 3:54). Franklyn Howland, A Brief Genealogical and Biographical History of Arthur, Henry, and John Howland and their Descendants...(New Bedford, Mass., 1885), contains many errors. It is debatable whether John Howland or John Alden has the greatest number of descendants living today, but certainly the number of both is high. Elizabeth Pearson White, former editor of the Mayflower Quarterly is compiling a comprehensive family history of the first five generations of John Howland?s family.
    SOURCE: Plymouth Colony: Its History & People, 1620-1691, Stratton, Eugene Aubrey, Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1986, pp. 311-12.

    ? However, Plymouth Colony was never unaware that their nearby growing neighbor to the north [Massachusetts Bay Colony] held the power, and there was frequently a touch of arrogance on the part of the Bay Colony toward its smaller sister colony. A 1634 incident on the Kennebec River demonstrated the Bay Colony?s assumption of power. The Bradford Patent gave Plymouth the right to settle or trade on the Kennebec River and to seize all persons, ships, and goods that might attempt to trade with the Indians on the Kennebec. Plymouth set up a trading post there under John Howland. A trading ship from the Piscataqua settlement under John Hocking ignored repeated warnings from Howland?s group that it had no right to be there. Howland ordered one of his men to cut the moorings of Hocking?s ship so it would drift down the river. Hocking shot and killed the man, Moses Talbot, and one of Talbot?s companions in turn shot and killed Hocking.
    SOURCE: Plymouth Colony: Its History & People, 1620-1691, Stratton, Eugene Aubrey, Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1986 , page 43.

    Sources:
    ? BIRTH DATE: Families of the Pilgrims, John Howland, Compliled by Hubert Kinney Shaw, Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1979., page 4
    ? DEATH DATE, DEATH PLACE, BURIAL: Plymouth Colony Records, 1633-1689, William White Press, Boston, 1857; reprinted Genealogical Publishing Company, 1976., page 34


    Last Modified: 11 NOV 1995

    Reference Note 18


    Reference Note 20


    Reference Note 39


    Reference Note 45


    Reference Note 47


    Gretchen and Dave Mills
    1520 Avonrea Road
    San Marino, CA 91108-2309
    818 799-6479"

    From Caleb?s Web Page

    John Howland

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    BORN: 1599-1602*, Fenstanton, Huntingdon, England, son of Henry Howland
    and Margaret (---)
    DIED: 23 February 1672/3, Rocky Nook, Kingston, MA
    MARRIED: Elizabeth Tilley, daughter of John and Joan (Hurst)(Rogers)
    Tilley of the Mayflower, bef. 1625

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    * The traditional date that has been ascribed to John Howland's birth is
    1592, and this date has not been questioned even in scholarly journal
    publications and books such as Elizabeth White's "John Howland of the
    Mayflower" or "The Great Migration Begins" by Robert C. Anderson. I
    believe, however, that this date is significantly faulty for the following
    reasons:

    * John Howland's wife was born in 1607, and it seems difficult to imagine
    having a first wife that is 15 years younger
    * Most men married first between the ages of 21 and 25. John Howland was
    married about 1624. This would put his birth range at 1599-1603. A
    first marriage at age 32 is most unlikely.
    * John Howland is called a "manservant" in William Bradford's passenger
    list, suggesting he was an apprentice in 1620. Apprentices (servants)
    were almost always under 25 years old, meaning Howland must have been
    born after 1595.
    * John Howland's last child was born in 1649. If the 1592 date is
    accepted, he would have been 57 years old, an unlikely condition.
    * William Bradford writes in that John Howland was a "lusty young man" in
    1620. It is unlikely that Bradford would call a 28-year old a "young
    man".
    * John Howland signed the Mayflower Compact, and to do so he would have
    had to be at least 18 years old, and probably 21. This means he was at
    least born before 1602.

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    CHILDREN:
    NAME BIRTH DEATH MARRIAGE

    Desire 1625, Plymouth 13 October 1683, John Gorham, c1643
    Barnstable, MA

    John 24 April 1627, after 1699 Mary Lee, 26 October
    Plymouth 1651, Plymouth

    Hope 30 August 1629, 8 January 1683/4, John Chipman, c1647
    Plymouth Barnstable
    (1). Ephraim Hicks, 13
    September 1649, Plymouth,
    Elizabeth c1631, possibly 1691, Oyster Bay, MA
    in Maine NY
    (2). John Dickinson, 10
    July 1651, Plymouth

    Lydia c1633, possibly aft. 11 January James Brown, c1654
    in Maine 1710/11

    Hannah c1637, possibly unknown Jonathan Bosworth,
    in Maine probably on 6 July 1661

    Joseph c1640, Kingston, January 1703/4, Elizabeth Southworth, 7
    MA Plymouth December 1664, Plymouth

    Jabez c1644, Kingston, between 1708 and Bethiah Thacher, c1668
    MA 1712
    Thomas Cushman, 17
    Ruth c1646, Kingston, between 1672 and 16 November 1664, Plymouth,
    MA October 1679
    MA
    Elizabeth Vaughan, c1676,
    Isaac 15 November 1649, 9 March 1723/4, probably at Marshfield,
    Kingston, MA Middleboro, MA
    MA

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ANCESTRAL SUMMARY:

    The ancestry of John Howland is discussed in John Howland of the Mayflower
    through Desire Howland for Five Generations", Vol. 1, by Elizabeth Pearson
    White, available from the Mayflower Web Page bookstore. John Howland is the
    son of Henry and Margaret Howland of Fenstanton, Huntingdon, England. Henry
    died on 17 May 1635 in Fenstanton, and Margaret was buried on 31 July 1629.
    Besides son John, who came on the Mayflower, they also had Humphrey, Arthur,
    Henry, George, and Margaret. Henry came to Plymouth sometime before 1633,
    and Arthur came sometime before 1640. For information on Arthur Howland, see
    the National Genealogical Society Quarterly 71:84+, and for information on
    Henry Howland see NGSQ 75:105-116, 216-225.

    John Howland is an ancestor to President George Bush, and to First Lady
    Edith (Carrow) Roosevelt (Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt). Presidents Richard
    Nixon and Gerald Ford are descendants of John Howland's brother Henry.
    Winston Churchill is descended from John Howland's brother Arthur.

    BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:

    John Howland came on the Mayflower as a servant to John Carver. He is best
    remembered for having fallen off the Mayflower during a mighty storm, as
    recorded by Bradford:

    In sundry of these storms the winds were so fierce and the seas so high, as
    they could not bear a know of sail, but were forced to hull for divers days
    together. And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull in a mighty storm, a
    lusty young man called John Howland, coming upon some occasion above the
    gratings was, with a seele of the ship, thrown into the sea; but it pleased
    God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards which hung overboard and ran
    out at length. Yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under
    water) till he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and
    then with boat hook and other means got into the ship again and his life
    saved. And though he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years
    after and became a profitable member both in church and commonwealth.

    John Howland's wife was Elizabeth Tilley, the daughter of John Tilley and
    Joan (Hurst) Rogers (all were Mayflower passengers). Elizabeth (Tilley)
    Howland died on 21 December 1687, in Swansea, Massachusetts.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SOURCES:

    (1). Elizabeth Pearson White, John Howland of the Mayflower through Desire
    Howland for Five Generations, vol. 1

    (2). Susan Roser, Mayflower Increasings and Decreasings, (2nd ed)

    (3). Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony, Its History and Its People,
    1620-1691, Salt Lake City, 1984

    (4). Of Plymouth Plantation, by William Bradford, written c1630-1651

    (5). Mayflower Descendant, 41:1-8, "The Mayflower Descents of President
    George Herbert Walker Bush, First Lady Barbara Pierce Bush, and Vice
    President James Danforth Quayle", by Gary Boyd Roberts.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mayflower Web Pages. Caleb Johnson 1997


    From Caleb?s Web Page

    John Howland's Will

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Last Will and Testament of mr John howland of Plymouth late Deceased,
    exhibited to the Court held att Plymouth the fift Day of March Anno Dom 1672
    on the oathes of mr Samuell ffuller and mr William Crow as followeth

    Know all men to whom these prsents shall Come That I John howland senir of
    the Towne of New Plymouth in the Collonie of New Plymouth in New England in
    America, this twenty ninth Day of May one thousand six hundred seaventy and
    two being of whole mind, and in Good and prfect memory and Remembrance
    praised be God; being now Grown aged; haveing many Infeirmities of body upon
    mee; and not Knowing how soon God will call mee out of this world, Doe make
    and ordaine these prsents to be my Testament Containing herein my last Will
    in manor and forme following;

    Imp I Will and bequeath my body to the Dust and my soule to God that Gave it
    in hopes of a Joyfull Resurrection unto Glory; and as Concerning my
    temporall estate, I Dispose thereof as followeth;

    Item I Doe give and bequeath unto John howland my eldest sonne besides what
    lands I have alreddy given him, all my Right and Interest To that one
    hundred acres of land graunted mee by the Court lying on the eastern side of
    Tauton River; between Teticutt and Taunton bounds and all the appurtenances
    and privilidges Therunto belonging, T belonge to him and his heirs and
    assignes for ever; and if that Tract should faile, then to have all my Right
    title and Interest by and in that Last Court graunt to mee in any other
    place, To belonge to him his heires and assignes for ever;

    Item I give and bequeath unto my son Jabez howland all those my upland and
    Meadow That I now posesse at Satuckett and Paomett, and places adjacent,
    with all the appurtenances and privilidges, belonging therunto, and all my
    right title and Interest therin, To belonge to him his heires and assignes
    for ever,

    Item I Give and bequeath unto my son Jabez howland all that my one peece of
    land that I have lying on the southsyde of the Mill brooke, in the Towne of
    Plymouth aforsaid; be it more or lesse; and is on the Northsyde of a feild
    that is now Gyles Rickards senir To belonge to the said Jabez his heirs and
    assignes for ever;

    Item I give and bequeath unto Isacke howland my youngest sonne all those my
    uplands and meddows Devided and undivided with all the appurtenances and
    priviliges unto them belonging, lying and being in the Towne of Middlebery,
    and in a tract of Land Called the Majors Purchase near Namassakett Ponds;
    which I have bought and purchased of William White of Marshfeild in the
    Collonie of New Plymouth; which may or shall appeer by any Deed or writinges
    Together with the aformentioned prticulares To belonge to the said Isacke
    his heirs and assignes for ever;

    Item I give and bequeath unto my said son Isacke howland the one halfe of my
    twelve acree lott of Meddow That I now have att Winnatucsett River within
    the Towne of Plymouth aforsaid To belonge to him and said Isacke howland his
    heires and assignes for ever,

    Item I Will and bequeath unto my Deare and loveing wife Elizabeth howland
    the use and benifitt of my now Dwelling house in Rockey nooke in the
    Township of Plymouth aforsaid, with the outhousing lands, That is uplands
    uplands [sic] and meddow lands and all appurtenances and privilidges
    therunto belonging in the Towne of Plymouth and all other Lands housing and
    meddowes that I have in the said Towne of Plymouth excepting what meddow and
    upland I have before given To my sonnes Jabez and Isacke howland During her
    naturall life to Injoy make use of and Improve for her benifitt and Comfort;

    Item I give and bequeath unto my son Joseph howland after the Decease of my
    loveing wife Elizabeth howland my aforsaid Dwelling house att Rockey nooke
    together with all the outhousing uplands and Medowes appurtenances and
    privilidges belonging therunto; and all other housing uplands and meddowes
    appurtenances and privilidges That I have within the aforsaid Towne of New
    Plymouth excepting what lands and meadowes I have before Given To my two
    sonnes Jabez and Isacke; To belong to him the said Joseph howland To him and
    his heires and assignes for ever;

    Item I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Desire Gorum twenty shillings

    Item I give and bequeath To my Daughter hope Chipman twenty shillings

    Item I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Elizabeth Dickenson twenty
    shillings

    Item I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Lydia Browne twenty shillings

    Item I give & bequeath to my Daughter hannah Bosworth twenty shillings

    Item I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Ruth Cushman twenty shillings

    Item I give to my Grandchild Elizabeth howland The Daughter of my son John
    howland twenty shillings

    Item my will is That these legacyes Given to my Daughters, be payed by my
    exequitrix in such species as shee thinketh meet;

    Item I will and bequeath unto my loveing wife Elizabeth howland, my Debts
    and legacyes being first payed my whole estate: vis: lands houses goods
    Chattles; or any thing else that belongeth or appertaineth unto mee,
    undisposed of be it either in Plymouth Duxburrow or Middlbery or any other
    place whatsoever; I Doe freely and absolutly give and bequeath it all to my
    Deare and loveing wife Elizabeth howland whom I Doe by these prsents, make
    ordaine and Constitute to be the sole exequitrix of this my Last will and
    Testament to see the same truely and faithfully prformed according to the
    tenour therof; In witness whereof I the said John howland senir have
    heerunto sett my hand and seale the aforsaid twenty ninth Day of May, one
    thousand six hundred seaventy and two 1672

    Signed and sealed in the

    prsence of Samuel ffuller John Howland

    William Crow And a seale

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Mayflower Web Pages. Caleb Johnson 1997


    "John Howland, who was born about 1594, came as a servant of John Carver, but as there is no record of his residence in Leyden he is credited to London for the reason that Carver was in England for some considerable time before the sailing of the Mayflower and undoubtedly obtained the serviced of Howland in that city prior to the departure from England. The Howland ancestry is probably of Essex origin. The will of Humphrey Howland, citizen and draper of St. Swithin?s, London, in 1646, mentions his brothers, John and Arthur, which are known Christian names of this family in New England, at the date of the will. There was a John Howland taxed at Canfield Parva, Essex, 1623, and the name also occurs earlier at Newport Pagnall in the same county. In London a John Howland was living in the parish of St. Mary, Whitechapel, in 1596, and in 1600 another John belonged to the parish of St. Botolph, Billingsgate. Jeffrey Howland was taxed in 1625 in the parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate. These parishes are all close to or part of the Pilgrim quarter of London."

    "In the Plymouth ChR 1:147, Rev. John Cotton said of him, ?He was a good old disciple & had bin sometime a magistrate here, a plaine-hearted christian?.

    "The following tables comprise the two earliest tax lists of the Colony of New Plymouth that can be found. the first, taken 2 Jan., 1632-3, has never appeared in print; the second, being for the year 1633-4, was printed in the first volume of Hazard?s valuable collection of State Papers. . .
    1) John Howland 00: 18: 00 . . .
    2) John Howland 01: 04: 00

    "Col. Chester?s investigations disprove this [that John Howland?s grandfather married Emma Revell], and show further the extraordinary fact, that the surname Howland is found in no other county in England than Essex, and originally in no other locality in that county except at Newport, Wicken, and their immediate vicinity. . . The head of the first line was John Howland of Newport Pond in the county of Essex. His son John (2) Howland, the citizen and salter, has been already mentioned, born in Newport Pond, married Anne, daughter of John Greenway of Winton, Co. Norfolk. . . .Several of his sons attained eminence, the most notable of whom were: . . His son John (4) Howland is the one which has been hitherto considered as identical with John Howland of the Mayflower; but as Mr. Chester conslusively proves, the former died unmarried and was buried in England. . . .Lastly, Col. Chester mentions a family of Howland composed of Humphrey Howland, citizen and draper of London, whose will was proved July 10, 1646. George Howland of St. Dunstans in the East, London, Arthur Howland, John Howland, and Henry Howland. These three brothers in the order named wer in 1646 to have pounds 8, 4, and 4 out of the debt due to the testator by Mr. Ruck of New England. This points conclusively to Arthur and Henry Howland of the Plymouth Colony, and proves that they had a brother John Howland, who can be no other than John Howland of the Mayflower."

    ""For many years John Howland lived on Leyden Street (Plymouth) and on the four-acre plot which was granted to him and his family at the land division of 1623, which was on what is now called Watson?s Hill where Massasoit camped with his followers in April, 1621. February 2nd, 1637-8, John Howland exchanged with John Jenney three acres of this land, paying him 85 pounds besides, for the house, barn and out-buildings at Rocky Nook, with its uplands and five acres of adjoining meadow. This land bordered on the shore, probably in the vicinity of the Fishing Rocks. The cellar holes of his house and two out-buildings can be seen on a little hill on the east side of Howland?s Lane, easily distinguished by one large hornbeam tree which stands on the top of the hill. The Pilgrim John Howland Society through the generosity of some of its loyal members, purchased in 1920 about four acres of land which had been the site of the home where John Howland and his wife Elizabeth lived from 1638 until his death in 1673. Four of their youngest children - Ruth, Hannah, Joseph and Isaac, were born at the Rocky Nook home. On the top of the hill, the Society has erected as a memorial a large block of roughly squared Quincy granity, seven feet high, five feet broad and three feet thick, bearing on one polished surface a finely carved representation of the Mayflower, and the inscription:
    ?Here Stood the Home of
    JOHN HOWLAND
    and his wife
    ELIZABETH TILLEY HOWLAND
    from 1638 until his death February 23, 1673
    Both Were Passengers In the Ship
    "MAYFLOWER"
    In grateful remembrance this land has been
    bought by their descendants, and this memorial
    erected upon the 300th anniversary of their
    landing at Plymouth, Mass.
    1620-1920? "

    "John Howland was a much respected and honored leader in the church at Plymouth. The Rev. John Cotton told how at his ordination as pastor in 1669 ?the aged Mr. Howland was appointed by the church to joyne in imposition of hands.? And when Howland died at the age of 80 Cotton praised him as a ?good old disciple? and ?a plain hearted Christian.? Another leader eulogized him as a ?godly man and an ancient professor in the ways of Christ.? "

    "John Howland was put in charge of the trading post [at Kennebec] and in 1634 he and John Alden were the magistrates in authority there."

    "Apparently the only record of John Howland being in Maine is the deposition about the April 1634 incident where Moses Talbot of Plymouth and John Hocking of Piscataway were shot and killed. At that time John Howland was in charge of the fur trading post at Kennebec (now in Maine) (The Mayflower Descendant, [hereafter MD], 2:10-11, see below; Plymouth Colony PR, 1:25). Governor Bradford, in his account of the incident, mentions ?now [April] was the season for trade,? perhaps implying they were only there in the Spring. He also mentions ?their house,? seeming to imply there was only one house (Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647 by William Bradford, 1952, 263). John Howland, Moses Talbot, John Irish, Thomas Savory, and William Reynolds were the Plymouth men at the trading post. John Howland?s stay in Kennebec was probably quite brief. On 2 January 1633/4 JohnHowland was one of the men chosen to do the rating for the 27 March 1634 tax list (Nathaniel Shurtleff and David Pulsifer, eds., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England, 1855-1861, reprinted 1968 [hereafter PCR], 1:26). Obviously he was in Plymouth at that time. As an Assistant, he attended the 3 March 1634/5 court (PCR, 1:33). On 2 March 1635/6 he was one of the men who viewed some land in Plymouth Colony (PCR, 1:39). On 14 March 1635/6 he was one of the men who representated the ?Duxborrow side? in a meeting (PCR, 1:41). He was on a jury in Plymouth 7 June 1636 (PCR, 1:42). On 5 Oct. 1636 he acquired George Kenrick as a servant for one year (PCR, 1:44). On 7 Jue 1637 he represented the town of ?Ducksborrow? (PCR, 1:61). Clearly he was in Plymouth Colony a few months before the ?Hocking Incident? and he was actively involved in Plymouth Colony affairs in the years following the incident, indicating he ay not have returned to Kennebec after the ?Hocking Incident.?"

    "There is much we do not know, but, based on Plymouth Colony records, it would seem John Howland was one of the first to settle in that part of Plymouth Colony which would become Duxbury, and lived there until shortly before 2 April 1640, when he sold his house and land in ?Duxborrow? to William kemp (PCR, 12:56). He had purchased a house and land in Plymouth 2 February 1638/9 from John Jenney (PCR, 12:41), and he was clearly living in Plymouth by 1 June 1641 when he was one of the committee for Plymouth (PCR, 2:16). The land he bought was in that part of Plymouth called Rocky Nooke. It is unclear whether he moved back to Plymouth in 1639 or 1640. In summary, if John Howland made more than one known trip to Maine, it almost surely would have been for fur trading. His residence was always Plymouth or Duxbury, and that is where his wife Elizabeth and the children surely lived. [Note: In the ?First Known Pilgrim Settlers in Each State and Canadian Province? section of The Mayflower Quarterly, it is stated that John and Elizabeth Howland were at Kennebeck River in 1628 (MQ, 57:290). The Piilgrims did not have the Kennebeck patent in 1628 and there is no record of anyone from Plymouth Colony in Kennebec in 1628]. The deposition concerning the incident at Kennebec was published in The Mayflower Descendant, 2:10-11 . . . It would be interesting to know who made the deposition. If it were John Howland, one would think it would say ?I? instead of his name. The handwriting seems to be Edward Winslow?s, so perhaps he is making the deposition. The other possibility is John Alden, who arrived with supplies shortly after the incident (and was jailed in Boston on the way back even though he was not involved " [text of deposition to be entered]

    "According to early maps, ?Kenibec?, and later the site of the Pilgrim trading post itself, were apparently located in the lower Kennebec River and included what is now called the Sassanoa River. . . .The ?family there?, at the trading post, referred to by Governor Bradford, could have been the family of John Howland, according to my personal belief. John Howland was placed in charge of the trading post for about ten years, starting about 1629, and some of his children may have been born there. (They were not recorded in Plymouth records). In 1639 John Howland moved back to Kingston and, for purposes of comparison with the artifacts uncovered in our present reserch on the Kennebec, we have the benefit of archaeological finds at his homesite in Kingston, as well as at the John Alden site in Duxbury."

    "This bronze tablet on a boulder, overlooking the bay shore [at First Encounter Beach] reads:
    ?On This Spot
    Hostile Indians
    Had Their
    First Encounter
    December 8, 1620
    Old Style
    With
    Myles Standish, John Carver, William Bradford, John Tilley, Edward Winslow, John Howland, Edward Tilley, Richard Warren, Stephen Hopkins, Edward Dotey, John Allerton, Thomas English, Master Mate Clark, Master Gunner Chopin and Three Sailors of the Mayflower Company
    Provincetown Tercentenary Commission 1620-1920.? "

    Photo of tombstone taken by Barbara Fleming August, 1997 on file:
    "Here ended the Pilgrimage of
    JOHN HOWLAND
    who died February 23, 1672/3,
    age above 80 years.
    He married Elizabeth daughter of
    JOHN TILLEY
    who came with him in the
    Mayflower Dec. 1620.
    From them are descended a
    numerous posterity.
    ?Hee was a godly man and an ancient
    professor in the wayes of Christ. Hee was
    one of the first comers into this land and
    was the last man that was left of those
    that came over in the Shipp called the
    Mayflower that lived in Plymouth.?
    Plymouth Records"

    Sign at Howland House, photo taken by Barbara Fleming August, 1997, on file.
    "HOWLAND
    HOUSE
    The last house left in
    PLYMOUTH whose
    walls have heard the
    voices of Mayflower
    Pilgrims.
    1667"

    Photo taken by Barbara Fleming in Rocky Nook, MA, August, 1997, on file:
    "HERE STOOD THE HOME OF JOHN HOWLAND
    AND HIS WIFE
    ELIZABETH TILLEY HOWLAND
    FROM 1638 UNTIL HIS DEATH FEB. 23, 1673
    BOTH WERE PASSENGERS IN THE SHIP ?MAYFLOWER?
    IN GRATEFUL REMEMBRANCE, THIS LAND HAS BEEN BOUGHT
    BY THEIR DESCENDANTS AND THIS MEMORIAL ERECTED
    UPON THE 300TH ANNIVERSERY OF THEIR LANDING
    AT PLYMOUTH MASS.
    1620-1920"

    2 postcards of interior of Howland House, Plymouth and one postcard of exterior on file of Barbara Fleming:
    "Built 1667 by Jabez Howland and lived in by his father, the Pilgrim John Howland. Restored by the Pilgrim John Howland Society."

    Monument at #16 Leyden Street near Main Street , Plymouth, MA visited by Barbara Fleming, August, 1997:
    "On this lot
    Stood the first house
    of the Mayflower Pilgrim
    John Howland
    The Pilgrim John Howland Society
    1978"

    "This will of Humphrey Howland has always been interesting because i it he mentions his brothers, Arthur, John and Henry in New England and later when it was discovered in the Draper?s Records that Humphrey was the son of Henry Howland of Fen Stanton,then we, also, knew the name of John Howland?s father. This will is hard to find in print in its entirety so recently we secured a photostatic copy as it appears today in London." Will to be entered. Includes "Item I give unto my brother ARthur Howland Eight pound out of the debt owing to me by Mr. Ruck of New England. And to my brother John Howland four pound out of the same debt. And to my brother Henry Howland four pound out of the said debt. But in case the said debt shalbe received in my life time then shaid three legacies payable out of the same to be void."

    "Normally, instructions were left for the division of all the immovable property upong surviving children after the death of the wife. John Howland, however, went further in leaving his wife, Elizabeth Tilley, apart from specified legacies of land, money, and debts that had to be settled, ? lands houses goods Chattles; or any thing else that belongeth or appertaineth to me, udisposed of be it either in Plymouth, Duxbury or Middlebury or any other place whatsoever.? This was all given ?freely and absolutely,? which meant that Elizabeth could dispose of it exactly as she wished. She was also made his sole executrix, following the common pattern in the colony, despite the fact that they had mature sons."

    "The oldest volume of the Plymouth Colony Records is entitled
    ?Plimouths great Book of Deeds of Lands
    Enrolled: from Ano 1627 to Ano 1651:?
    On pages 50-57 of this book is entered the record of the Division of Cattle which was made June 1, 1627, new style:
    ?1627.
    At a publique court held the 22th of May it was concluded by the whole Companie, that the cattell wch were the Companies, to wit, the Cowes & the Goates should be equall devided to all the psonts of the same company & soe kept untill the expiration of ten yeares after the date above written. & that every one should well and sifficiently pvid for there owne pt under penalty of forfeiting the same.
    That the old stock with halfe th increase should remaine for comon use to be devided at thend of the said terme or otherwise as ocation falleth out, & the other halfe to be their owne for ever.
    Uppon wch agreement they were equally devided by lotts soe as the burthen of keeping the males then beeing should be borne for common use by those to whose lot the best Cowes should fall & so the lotts fell as followeth. thirteene psonts being pportioned to one lot.

    4. The fourth lot fell of John Howland & his company
    Joyned to him his wife
    2 Elizabeth Howland
    3 John Howland Junor
    4 Desire Howland
    5 William Wright
    6 thomas Morton Junor
    7 John Alden
    8 Prissilla Alden
    9 Elizabeth Alden
    10 Clemont Briggs
    11 Edward Dolton
    12 Edward holdman
    13 Joh. Alden
    To this lot fell one of the 4 heyfers Came in the Jacob Called Raghorne. ? "

    " August 1643. The names of all the males that are able to beare armes from XVI yeares old to 60 yeares wthin the seuerall Touneships.
    Plymouth. . .
    John Howland Sen"

    "The second site to be excated following James Hall?s early work on the Standish site [was] that of John Howland. The project was undertaken in 1937 by an architect, Sidney Strickland . . . Strickland had a title search carried out, and there is no question that the property was lived on by John Howland . . .Howland acquired the property from John Jenney in 1638, who had already built a house there. . . .The Howland sites are located on a twenty-one-acre parcel of land, situated on both sides of Howland?s Lane in Rocky Nook, Kingston, Massachusetts. " Some details of this and later excavations, including maps, to be entered.

    "The most reasonable accounting for the Howland complex is as follows. Upon acquiring the property in 1638, John Howland occupied the house constructed by John Jenney until he built a more elaborate house (Structure 1) about mid-century. There is no evidence that the house burned. Upon his return from military service in 1676, Lieutenant Joseph Howland erected a new house (Structure 3) opposite that which belonged to his father, and where his widowed mother, Elizabeth Tilley Howland, still lived. Elizabeth died at the home of her daughter, Lydia Browne, in Swansea in December 1687. There is no record of when she moved to Swansea, but her will was drawn up in Bristol County in 1686 and she named her son-in-law, James Browne, and her son Jabez Howland as executors, so she had certainly left the Rocky Nook property by that date. Whether Joseph Howland ever occupied the house left to him by his father (Structure 1) we will not know. Structure 2, near Structure 3, could have been the root cellar of an outbuilding associated with the house. Such cellars are known from the period and should this be the case, if Structure 4 is indeed the cellar of a house built by James Howland, all structures are accounted for." Details of some Howland artifacts to be entered.

    "John Howland . . . died in 1673 at an age of?above eighty years.? In the Plymouth Register of Births, Marriages, and deaths, it is recorded that John Howland Sr. died on February 23, 1672, and that he lived until ?he attained above eighter years in the world? (PCR 8:34). On March 4, 1672/73, Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland was granted letters of administration to administer the estate of Mr. John Howland Sr. of Plymouth, ?late deceased? (PCR 5:110)."

    "The following list, containing, in part, the names of those in the colony who were taxed by order of the Court, March, 1633, will show the comparative wealth of some of them.
    Mr. John Howland 1 4s [listed 9th]"

    "1637. Mr. John Howland and Mr. Jno. Brewster were appointed for the town of Duxbury, to attend to the preservation of the beaver trade."

    "The brothers, John, Arthur and Henry Howland, apparently came to the Colony through the powerful influence of the Company of Drapers in London, with whom their brother Humphrey was associated. This Company of Merchants helf a large block of stock in the Virginia Company, and were anxious to send a high type of settler to the colonies. Members of the Brewster family were also associated with the Draper?s Company of London."

    From Plymouth Colony Deeds:
    [p. 169] 1656 ?A writing apointed to bee Recorded
    Wheras there was a Diference fell out betwixt John howland senir Thomas Bourne and John Dingley about the Range of a pcell of marsh meddow lying in Marshfeild and not eazye to bee knowne;
    These are therefore to put an end to the aforsaid Diference; It is agreed by and between the said John howland senir Thomas Bourne and John Dingley senir: that the line or Range shall begin att the beach next the sea upon a west line sett by a compas to a homacke in the marsh where there lyes an olf Ceader tree there being noe other nor no more trees neare next to the great Lland bu that onely And from the aforsaid Basse creeke To which agreement all the aforsaid pties have freely assented unto as abovesaid; alsoe that this agreement bee put upon REcord both att Marshfeild and the court booke att Plymouth to avoid all further Diference for time to Come about the prmises; in witnesse wherof wee the said John howland senir: Thomas Bourne and John Dingley have put to our hands this fourth of May 1655
    in the prsense John howland
    of Myles Standish Thomas Bourne
    John Dingley"

    "A 38-foot shallop completed an 11-day journey Thursday that recreated the first trade voyage up the Kennebec River by the Pilgrims in 1628. The Elizabeth Tilley, a replica of the boat used for the original trip, set sail July 28 from Plymouth, Mass., and stopped at 10 ports along the way, including Kennebunkport, Portland and Bath. The trip replicated the voyage of John Howland from Plymouth to Cushnoc, the original name for the Augusta landing point. Shallops were common sailing and rowing boats in 16th- and 17th century Europe. Jay Adams, director of Old Fort Western, which is hosting the shallop?s stay in Augusta, said the Pilgrims made the voyage to help pay off debts they took on to finance their trip from England to America. To do so, Pilgrims like Howland explored trading Plymouth corn for beaver pelts from the Kennebec-area Indians, Adams said. Howland made an exploratory foray up the Kennebec in 1625, and three years later the Pilgrims set up a trading post at Cushnoc that operated off and on into the 1660s."

    "Howland Historic Sidewalk Marker
    Dedicated in September 1978, and reads: ?On This Lot Stood the First House of the Mayflower Pilgrim JohnHowland, 1978.? Clinton W. Sellew did the research and was responsible for this very important marker. It is located at 16 Leyden Street, Plymouth>?

    "John Howland

    3 March 1672/1673

    Plymouth Colony Wills 3(1):49-54

    Mayflower Descendant 2(1900):70-77

    #P204

    [p.51] A trew Inventory of all the goods Cattles and Chattles and Lands of Mr John howland lately Deceased taken and aprised by Elder Thomas Cushman Serjeant Tinkham and Willam Crow the third of March Anno Dom 1672 and exhibited to the Court held att Plymouth the fift of March 1672/73 on the oathe of mrs Elizabeth howland widdow as followeth

    In the outward or fier Rome L s d

    Impr I muskett 1 long Gun 1 Cutlas 1 belt, att 02 10 00

    Item 1 Chimney Iron barr 2 paire of pot hangers 00 09 00

    Item 1 fier shovell 1 paire of tonges 1 paire of Cob irons 00 07 00

    Item 1 frying pan 1 smoothing box and Irons 00 05 06

    Item 1 adds 2 axes 1 mortising axe 1 hoe 00 11 06

    Item 3 augers 1 pikaxe 00 05 00

    Item 1 hammer 1 paire of Pincers 1 Drawing knife 1 spliting kniffe 00 02 00

    Item 2 Cow bells 1 old Chaine, and Divers peeces of old Iron Aules & a box 00 05 00

    Item 2 presshookes 1 paire of sheep sheers 2 sickles 00 04 00

    Item 1 pruning Instrument 1 peece of steele 00 02 00

    Item 2 staples 1 peec of a Chaine 00 01 06

    Item 2 staples 4 peeces of a chaine 00 01 06

    Item 1 Dagger three knives 2 paire of sissers 1

    paire of stilliyards 00 06 00

    Item 1 padlock 1 thwart saw 3 wedges 1 ploughshare 00 10 00

    Item 3 Iron potts 1 paire of pothookes 1 Iron kettle 01 06 00

    Item 2 brasse kittles 1 warming pan 01 15 00

    Item 1 skimer 1 ladle 1 sawsse pan 1 brasse skillet 00 04 06

    Item 6 pewter platters 3 bason 3 smale pewter thinges 01 07 00

    Item a quart pot 1 candlesticke 1 beer bowle 00 05 00

    Item 3 porringers 1 Dram cupp 1 Tunell 00 03 00

    Item 2 salt sellers 2 chamber potts 7 spoones 00 10 00

    Item 1 Iron candlesticke 1 latten pott 1 Ironsockettd 00 02 00

    Item 1 shove Iron 2 washers 2 old sickles and old Iron 00 02 00

    Item 4 earthen potts 1 pan and 1 Jugg and earthen ware 00 02 00

    Item 1 hatchell 00 05 00

    Item 1 great bible and Annotations on the 5 bookes

    of Moses 01 00 00

    Item mr Tindalls workes mr Wilsons workes 7 more bookes 01 00 00

    Item 3 wheeles 1 cherne 1 straning Dish 00 13 00

    Item 3 cheesfatts 11 trayes 1 kimnell 00 05 06

    Item 3 pailes six tubbs 1 ladle 1 cheese ladder 00 14 06

    Item trenchers Roleing pins and some smale things 00 02 00

    Item 3 Chaires stooles old barrells 3 Cushens 00 07 00

    Items 3 beer vessells 00 04 00

    16 06 00

    [p.52] In the Inward Rome or bedchamber

    his wearing appaarell

    Item 3 hatts 00 16 00

    Item 3 great coates 02 00 00

    Item 1 suite of cloth 03 00 00

    Item 1 serge suite 01 10 00

    Item 1 homespon suite and wastcoate 00 15 00

    Item 1 suite 00 12 00

    Item old clothes 00 06 00

    Item 2 red wastcoates 01 05 00

    Item 6 paire of Stockens 01 00 00

    Item 1 Jackett and one paire of Mittens 00 13 06

    Item 1 holland shirt 00 12 00

    Item 4 shirts 00 18 00

    Item 4 holland capps 4 Dowlis capps and 4 other capps 00 10 00

    Item 2 silke Neckclothes 00 07 06

    Item 1 paire of bootes 2 paire of shooes 01 00 00

    15 11 00

    In the said Rome

    Item 4 remnants of clothe 00 19 00

    Item 2 yards of serge 00 10 00

    Item 3 yards 1/2 of carsey 01 15 00

    Item 4 Dozen of buttons 1/2 10 skines of silke 3 yards of Manchester 00 04 00

    Item 17 yards of fflax and cotton cloth att 02 11 00

    Item 1 peece of fine Dowlis 00 08 06

    Item 1 remnant of licye woolsey 00 08 00

    Item about 16 yards of several remnants of homade Cloth vallued att 03 10 00

    10 05 06

    In the aforsaid Inward Roome

    Item 1 pound of woolen yerne 00 03 00

    Item 1 paire of sheets 01 05 00

    Item 2 paire of sheets 01 10 00

    Item 1 paire of sheets 1 halfe sheet 01 05 00

    Item 1 paire of sheets att 00 10 00

    Item 1 paire of holland pillowbeers 00 08 09

    Item 2 paire of pillowbeers 00 15 00

    Item 3 pillowbeers 00 06 00

    Item 1 Table cloth and 7 napkins 00 13 00

    Item 10 towells 00 07 00

    Item 4 smale Table clothes 00 04 00

    Item 2 smale pillowbeers 00 01 6

    Item 1 Table and 2 formes 00 10 0

    Item 1 cobbert and a framed chaire 00 08 0

    Item 4 chest and 1 settle 01 00 00

    Item 1 bedsted and box and coard 00 12 0

    Item 1 seifting trough and 2 seives 00 04 0

    Item 1 glass 2 glass bottles 2 earthen potts 00 03 0

    Item 1 wineglasse gallipotts and spectacles 00 02 0

    Item 2 paire of coards one bed cord 1 fishing line 00 05 06

    Item some hobnailes & twelvepeny nailes 00 02 00

    Item 5 peeces of Dresed lether one peece of taned lether 00 06 00

    Item a smale prcell of hemp and hopps 00 02 00

    Item 3 or 4 basketts 1 brush 1 file 00 01 00

    [p. 53] Item Cotton woole about a Dozen pound 00 12 00

    Item 3 old caske 00 02 00

    Item 1 feather bed and bolster 3 great & 2 smale pillowes 05 00 00

    Item 5 blanketts 03 15 00

    Item 1 rugg and one blankett 01 15 00

    Item 1 blankett att 00 15 00

    Item in reddy mony 01 19 00

    Item a smale prcell of powder shott and bulletts 00 03 00

    Item 1 Inkhorn 00 00 06

    24 14 03

    In the uper Roome or Chamber

    Item 1 feather bed bolster and pillow 04 00 00

    Item 2 blanketts and a Rugg 01 05 00

    Item 1 woole or fflocke bed 2 feather bolsters and a pillow 02 00 00

    Item 2 blanketts 00 15 00

    Item 1 bedstead cord and box 00 10 00

    Item 1 prcell of sheep woole about fifteen pound 00 15 00

    Item a prcell of feathers about 15 or 16 pound 00 15 00

    Item a cupple of old hogsheds and an old candlesticke 00 02 00

    Item 20 bushells or therabouts of Indian corne 03 00 00

    Item 4 bushells of Mault or therabouts 00 16 00

    Item 4 bushells of Rye or therabouts 00 14 00

    Item 6 bushells of wheat or therabouts 01 07 00

    Item 2 bushells and an halfe or barly or therabouts 00 10 00

    Item 2 ffliches of bacon and 1 third of a barrell of porke 02 00 00

    Item 1 halfe of a barrell of beeff and 2 empty barrells 00 15 00

    Item 15 pound of Tallow and Candles 00 07 06

    Item 34 pound of butter and lard 00 17 00

    Item 14 pound of sugare 00 03 00

    Item 1 halfe hogshed 00 03 00

    Item 1 pad 1 pillian 1 bridle 1 sheepskin 00 05 00

    Item 6 pound of Tobacco 1 pecke of beans 00 04 00

    Item 1 grindstone and handles 1 ffan 00 09 00

    Item 8 baggs 15s old Iron 1 shilling 00 16 00

    22 14 06

    Cattle

    Item 2 mares and one colt 03 00 00

    Item 4 oxen 4 cowes 24 00 00

    Item 2 heiffers and 3 steers of three years old 12 10 00

    Item 2 two yeare old heiffers 2 yearling calves 03 10 00

    Item 13 swine 04 15 00

    Item 45 sheep young and old 15 00 00

    Item the one halfe of a paire of Iron bound wheeles and cart and 12 bolts 2 shakles 02 02 06

    Item 1 paire of hookes and a staple 00 01 06

    Item 1 bullockes hyde 00 14 00

    Item a cannooe 00 05 00

    00 05 00

    65 18 00

    {p.54} Debts Due to the Testator

    ffrom John Branch of Marshfeild att 2 several pay-ments the sume of 08 00 00

    Edward Gray 1 barrell of salt 00 12 00

    Item a Debt Due from a frind 00 10 00

    09 02 00

    Brought from the other side 155 09 03

    Sume 164 11 03

    Debts owing by the Testator

    To Elder Thomas Cushman 00 15 00

    To Thomas Cushman Junir 00 05 00

    To John Clarke 00 10 06

    To Edward Gray 00 08 03

    To William Crow 00 02 00

    To John Gorum 01 12 00

    To two or three smale Debts about 00 02 00

    ffunerall Charges 03 08 00

    Debts Deducted 07 02 02

    The totale of the estate prissed 157 08 08

    Wee find that the Testator Died posessed of these severall parcells of Land following;

    Impr his Dwelling house with the outhousing uplands and meddow belonging therunt lying att Rockey nooke in the Towne of New Plymouth

    Item a prcell of meddow att Jonses river meddow

    Item the one halfe of a house and a prcell of meddow and upland belonging therunto lying and being att Colchester in the aforsaid Townshipp;

    Item a prcell of meddow and upland belonging therunto; lying neare Joness river bridge in the Towne of Duxburrow

    Item one house and 2 shares of a tract of land and meddow that lyeth in the Towne of Middleberry that was purchaced by Captaine Thomas Southward of and from the Indian Sachem Josias Wampatucke

    Item 2 Shares of a tract of Land Called the Majors Purchase lying neare Namassakett ponds

    pr nos Thomas Cushman senr

    Ephraim Tinkam senir

    William Crow"

    "An original letter from a genealogist in England, in 1879, mentions ?the extraordinary fact that I find the surname of Howland in no other county in England than Essex, and originally in no other locality in that county except at Newport and Wicken and their immediate vicinity. Wherever at later periods I have found Howlands in other counties, as Hertfordshire, Surrey, Berks, etc., I have invariably traced them back to Newport and Wicken. It is clear that several families of the name were living there contemporaneously and equally so that they were all in some way connected . . . at the period of the birth of John Howland of the Mayflower, there were living then no less than five John Howlands . . . ? In two of these lines, the Howland name terminated in heiresses, one of whom, Elizabeth by name, bequeaathed the Streatham Estates to her husband, the Duke of Bedford, who then acquired the additional title of Baron Howland."

    "John Howland of the Mayflower was born in 1592, the son of Henry Howland, of Fen Stanton,m Huntingdonshire (near Newport, County Essex). He had at least four brothers, Arthur, George, Henry, and Humphrey. His brothers Arthur and Henry came to America about 1623/4 and laater joined the Society of Friends. Early records reveal that Arthur, whose home was in Marshfield, was fined many time for ?pmitting of a Quaker?s meeting in his house.? When he refused to pay the fines, he was sent to jail. Henry was fined for entertaining Quakers, at the Court of March, 1658."

    "In mid-Atlantic, during a violent storm, John Howland was almost drowned when a mountainous wave swept him overboard. Grasping a halyard which was trailing astern of the Mayflwoer, although at first he was several fathoms under water, he finally managed to haul himself to the surfact. He was then rescued, by means of a boathook along with the rope, etc. By November 11, 1620, he had sufficiently recuperated from his oceanic adventure to be the thirteenth signer of the Mayflower Compact. And a few days later, December 6, he was one of the ten chosen to make the third exploration along the shore. On this occasion, they were attacked by the Indians at Eastham, Cape Cod. In Bradford?s History, we learn that the mast of the shallop broke during a sudden squall, and the sail was lost overboard. ?The weataaher was very cold, and it froze so hard . . . the spray of the sea lighting on their coats, they were as if they had been glazed.? "

    "John Howland was one of governor Carver?s family. Both Governor Carver and his wife were among the fifty Pilgrims who died during the first few months of the struggle for survival at Plymouth. It is believed that John Howland inherited John carver?s estate, as the Carvers had no children of their own. About 1626 John Howland married Elizabeth Tilley, a girl of eighteen. She had come on the Mayflower with her parents, who, like the carvers, were victims of ?the sickness? during the first winter. She d. 21 Dec. 1687, at Swansea. In 1626, John Howland was one of those (including Bradford, Brewster, Standish, etc.) who assumed the Colony?s debt to the Merchant adventurers, 1800. At least as early as 1633-35, he was an Assistant or member of the Governor?s Council, and from 1641 to 1670 was frequently a deputy or representative to the General Court. In 1634, he commanded the Pilgrim? Trading Post at Kennebec (Maine)."

    " ?The 23th of February 1672 Mr. John Howland senir of the Towne of Plymouth Deceased; hee was a Godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ hee lived untill he attained above eighty eyares in the world, hee was one of the first Comers into this land andproved a usefull Instrument of Good in his place & was thhe last man that was left of those that Came over in the shipp Called the May Flower, that lived in Plymmouth hee was with honor Intered att the Towne of Plymouth on the 25 of February 1672.? Plymouth Colony Vital Records. The Mayflwoer Descendant, 18:69."

    "Although they had deferred to the ?resolution? of the partners, in 1635 the Governor (Mr. Prence), Mr. Collier, Mr. Alden, Mr. Brown and Mr Howland were directed ?by the Court to view that portion of the ground on the north side of the North River and if they find it more beneficial for farms to Scituate than to these parts, then to allot it to them; if not to reserve it.? They reserved it. "

    "With a demand for beaver furs in England, they found that the fur trade with the Indians on the Kennebec River provided them with the opportunity to repay their London investors. Either men of the ?Old Comers? signed a lease agreeing to undertake the repayment of this debt for the colony. These eight men would operate the trading posts in Maine: John Howland, Edward Winslow, William Bradford, John Alden, Myles Standish, Isaac Allerton, William Brewster and Thomas Prence. In about twelve years, the industry of this group of ?Undertakers? had successfully repaid the debts. . . Exactly where the trading posts were located is difficult to determine. No detailed account of the locations of their daily operations, kept by those men operating the business, have ever been found . . . There are references to five possible locations for the trading posts on the Kennebec River: Arrowsic, Kenebec, Cushnoc, Chushenage, and Winslow."

    More details to be entered.

    "1634.
    This year Mr. Thomas Prince was chosen governor of the jurisdiction of New Plimouth. His assistants in government were Mr. William Bradford, Mr. Edward Winslow, Capt. Miles Standish, Mr. William Collier, Mr. John Alden, Mr. John Howland, and Mr. Stephen Hopkins."

    "1635.
    This year Mr. William Bradford was chosen governor of the jurisdiction of New Plimouth. Mr. Edward Winslow, Mr. Thomas Prince, Mr. William Collier, Capt. Miles Standish, Mr. John Alden, Mr. John Howland, and Mr. Stephen Hopkins, were chosen to be his assistants in government."

    "The following list of 51 people believed to have been living in December 1621 has been compiled from Eugene A. Stratton and Robert S. Wakefield, ?A Historical Background for Easly Plymouth Colony Genealogical research, Genealogical Journal 13(winter 1984-5): 145-162:
    1. John Alden . .
    28. Stephen Hopkins
    29. Elizabeth Hopkins
    30. Constance Hopkins
    31. Giles Hopkins
    32. Damaris Hopkins
    33. Oceanus Hopkins
    34. John Howland . . .
    39. Priscilla Mullins . . .
    44. Elizabeth Tilley . . .
    46. Richard Warren . . . "
  • Change Date: 23 NOV 2013



    Father: Henry HOWLAND b: 1564 in Fenstanton, Huntingtonshire, England
    Mother: Margaret b: 1567 in Fenstanton, Huntingtonshire, England

    Marriage 1 Elizabeth TILLEY b: BEF 30 AUG 1607 in Henlow, Bedfordshire, England c: 30 AUG 1607 in Henlow, Bedfordshire, England
    • Married: ABT 1625 in Plymouth, Plymouth, MA 42 2 17 43
    Children
    1. Has Children Desire HOWLAND b: ca 1625/1626 in Plymouth, MA c: in Plymouth, Plymouth, MA
    2. Has No Children John HOWLAND b: 24 APR 1627
    3. Has Children Hope HOWLAND b: 30 AUG 1629 in Plymouth, Plymouth, MA
    4. Has No Children Elizabeth HOWLAND b: ABT 1631
    5. Has No Children Lydia HOWLAND b: ABT 1633
    6. Has No Children Hannah HOWLAND b: ABT 1637
    7. Has No Children Joseph HOWLAND b: ABT 1640
    8. Has No Children Jabez HOWLAND b: ABT 1644
    9. Has No Children Ruth HOWLAND b: ABT 1646
    10. Has No Children Isaac HOWLAND b: 15 NOV 1649

    Sources:
    1. Type: Book
      Author: Elizabeth Pearson White
      Periodical: John Howland of the Mayflower
      Publication: (Camden, ME: Picton Press, 1990)
    2. Type: Book
      Author: Susan Roser
      Periodical: Mayflower Increasings
      Publication: (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1995)
    3. Type: Book
      Author: Robert Croll Stevens
      Periodical: Ancestry of the Children of Robert Croll Stevens and Jeane Eleanor (Knauss) Stevens
      Publication: Pittsford, NY: self-published, 1985
    4. Type: Book
      Author: Lyman Mower
      Periodical: The Ancestry of Calvin Robinson Mower (1840-1927)
      Publication: Durham, NH: Self-published, 2004
    5. Type: Book
      Author: Carl Boyer
      Periodical: Ancestral Lines
      Publication: Newhall, CA: Self-published, 1975
    6. Text: AOL Mayflower Gedcom file, downloaded 9/95.
    7. Type: Book
      Author: Susan E. Roser
      Periodical: Mayflower Births & Deaths
      Publication: (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., 1992)
    8. Type: Periodical
      Author: David Hamblen
      Title: First Settlers of Barnstable
      Periodical: New England Historical & Genealogical Register
      Date: January, 1849
    9. Type: Web Site
      Author: Pilgrim John Howland Society
      Title: Pilgrim John Howland Society website
      URL: http://www.pilgrimjohnhowlandsociety.org/john_howland.shtml
      Date: Accessed 1 Oct 2006
    10. Type: Periodical
      Author: George Ernest Bowman
      Title: Plymouth Colony Vital Records
      Periodical: Mayflower Descendant
      Date: April, 1916
    11. Type: Book
      Author: James Savage
      Periodical: Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England
      Publication: Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1860, reprinted in 1986)
    12. Type: Book
      Author: Robert Croll Stevens
      Periodical: Ancestry of the Children of Robert Croll Stevens and Jeane Eleanor (Knauss) Stevens
      Publication: Pittsford, NY: self-published, 1991
    13. Text: "John Howland of the Mayflower" GEDCOM, downloaded from AOL, uploaded 11/24/94 by Dave Mills, 1520 Avonrea Road, San Marino, CA 91108 (e-mail: SoCalAdGuy).
    14. Type: Periodical
      Author: Richard Evans
      Title: Jeffrey Howland, Citizen and Grocer of London
      Periodical: New England Historical & Genealogical Register
      Date: October, 1998
    15. Type: Book
      Author: James Deetz & Patricia Scott Deetz
      Periodical: The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony
      Publication: (NY: W.H. Freeman & Co., 2000)
    16. Text: Rollins/Howland GEDCOM file, downloaded from AOL.
    17. Type: Web Site
      Author: Johnson, Caleb
      Title: Mayflower Web Pages
      URL: Online <http://members.aol.com/calebj/mayflower.html>
      Date: Downloaded July, 1998
    18. Type: Book
      Author: Charles Edward Banks
      Periodical: The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers
      Publication: (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1984)
    19. Type: Periodical
      Author: Nathl. B. Shurtleff
      Title: Plymouth Colony Rates
      Periodical: New England Historical & Genealogical Register
      Date: July, 1850
    20. Type: Periodical
      Author: L.M. Howland
      Title: A Sketch of the Howlands
      Periodical: New England Historical and Genealogical Register
      Date: (April, 1880)
    21. Type: Periodical
      Title: Rocky Nook
      Periodical: The Howland Quarterly
      Date: (July, 1937)
    22. Type: Periodical
      Author: Robert F. Huber
      Title: John Howland and his Two Quaker Brothers
      Periodical: The Howland Quarterly
      Date: (June, 1999)
    23. Type: Periodical
      Author: Robert S. Wakefield
      Title: John Howland in Maine
      Periodical: The Mayflower Descendant
      Date: (January, 1992)
    24. Type: Periodical
      Author: Eben L. Elwell
      Title: A New Look at Early Pilgrim Activity at ?Kenibec? in Maine
      Periodical: The Mayflower Quarterly
      Date: (May, 1981)
    25. Type: Book
      Author: Donald G. Trayser
      Periodical: Eastham?s Three Centuries
      Publication: (Eastham, MA: Eastham Tercentenary Committee, 1951)
    26. Text: Photo taken by Barbara Fleming August, 1997, on file.
    27. Type: Periodical
      Title: Will of Humphrey Howland
      Periodical: Howland Quarterly
      Date: July, 1964
    28. Type: Periodical
      Title: The Division of cattle in 1627
      Periodical: Mayflower Descendant
      Date: July, 1899
    29. Type: Periodical
      Author: Nathaniel B. Shurtleff
      Title: List of Those Able to Bear Arms in the Colony of New Plymouth in 1643.
      Periodical: New England Historical & Genealogical Register
      Date: July, 1850
    30. Type: Book
      Author: Justin Winsor
      Periodical: History of the Town of Duxbury, Massachusetts, with Genealogical Registers
      Publication: (Boston: Crosby & Nichols, 1849)
    31. Type: Book
      Author: Leon Clark Hills
      Periodical: History and Genealogy of the Mayflower Planters and First Comers to Ye Olde Colonie
      Publication: Washington, D.C.: Hills Publishing Co., 1941
    32. Type: Periodical
      Author: George Ernest Bowman
      Title: Plymouth Colony Deeds [Howland, Bourne, and Dingley, Agreement]
      Periodical: Mayflower Descendant
      Date: April, 1908
    33. Type: Web Site
      Author: Associated Press (Online through the Concord Online Monitor)
      Title: Pilgrim shallop completes re-creation of historic journey
      URL: http://www.cmonitor.com/stories/news/newengla2003/me shalloopvoyage 2003.shtml
      Date: 8 Aug 2003 (accessed Jan 2004)
    34. Type: Periodical
      Title: ?Must See? Places to Visit in Plymouth
      Periodical: The Howland Quarterly
      Date: June, 2004
    35. Type: Web Site
      Author: Patricia Scott Deetz & Christopher Fennell
      Title: The Plymouth Colony Archive Project
      URL: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/probates.html
      Date: Accessed 11 Nov. 2004
    36. Type: Book
      Author: Hubert Kinney Shaw
      Periodical: Families of the Pilgrims
      Publication: Boston: MA Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1956
    37. Type: Book
      Author: Harvey Hunter Pratt
      Periodical: The Early Planters of Scituate
      Publication: Scituate, MA: The Scituate Historical Society, 1929
    38. Type: Periodical
      Author: Anne M. Vadakin
      Title: The Pilgrim Colonists in the District of Maine
      Periodical: The Howland Quarterly
      Date: March, 2003
    39. Type: Book
      Author: Franklyn Howland
      Periodical: A Brief Genealogical and Biographical History of Arthur, Henry, and John Howland
      Publication: New Bedford, MA: self-published, 1885
    40. Type: Book
      Author: Nathaniel Morton
      Periodical: New England?s Memorial
      Publication: Cambridge: S.G. and M.J. for John Usher, 1669
    41. Type: Periodical
      Author: Robert S. Wakefield
      Title: The Seven Houses of Plymouth
      Periodical: Mayflower Descendant
      Date: January, 1994
    42. Type: Book
      Author: Robert Charles Anderson
      Periodical: The Great Migration Begins
      Publication: (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995)
    43. Type: Periodical
      Author: Betty M. Styer
      Title: Elizabeth Tilley of the Mayflower
      Periodical: The Esssex Genealogist
      Date: 1982
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