Newell, Eisendrath, Rosenberg, Witmondt, Waag, Stanley, Guyon, Moatti, Bitoun, Le Baut

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Newell, Eisendrath, Witmondt, Waag, Stanley, Guyon, Moatti, Bitoun, Le Baut

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  • ID: I62007
  • Name: Abraham Joshua (Rabbi) HESCHEL 1
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: 1595 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland) 2
  • Occupation: Chief Rabbi of Kraków (Cracow), Polska (Poland) BET 1654 AND 1663
  • Event: Historical Nickname Rabbenu Heschel
  • Death: DEC 1663 in Kraków (English: Cracow, German: Krakau), Polska (Poland) 1
  • Name: Heshel BABAD
  • Name: Heschel (Gaon of Cracow) BERISH
  • Name: Avraham Yehoshua HERSCHEL
  • Name: Heschel (Rabbi) 3
  • Name: Abraham Yehoshua (Rabbi) ben Jacob HESCHEL
  • Name: Avraham Yehoshua (Rabbi) HESCHEL 4
  • Name: Avram Yehoshua (Rabbi) HESCHEL
  • Name: Joshua (Chief Rabbi) HESCHEL
  • Name: Joshua (Chief Rabbi) ben Jacob HESCHEL
  • Name: Yehoshua (Chief Rabbi) HESCHEL
  • Name: Avraham Yehoshua HESHEL
  • Name: Joshua (Rabbi) HOESCHEL b. Jacob 5
  • Name: Joshua (Rabbi) HÖSCHEL
  • Name: Jozua HÖSCHEL
  • Name: R HÖSCHEL b R Jaacob b R Ephraim Naftali Hirsch 6
  • Name: Jehoschua Heschel (Rabbi) 7
  • Name: Joshua Heschel (Chief Rabbi)
  • Birth: 1596 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland)
  • Death: 1663 in Kraków (English: Cracow, German: Krakau), Polska (Poland) 5
  • Death: 21 OCT 1663 in Kraków (English: Cracow, German: Krakau), Polska (Poland)
  • Death: 1664 in Kraków (English: Cracow, German: Krakau), Polska (Poland) 8
  • Occupation: Head of the Vaad Arba Aratzot (Council of the Four Lands)
  • Occupation: Rabbi of Brest-Litovsk (Brisk) BEF 1630
  • Occupation: Rabbi in Krakow 1633
  • Occupation: Head of the Yeshivah in Lublin BET 1644 AND 1654
  • Occupation: Rabbi in Lublin BET 1650 AND 1654
  • Event: Historical Nickname "Rebbi Reb Hoeschel" 5
  • Event: Historical Nickname "The Chacham Zvi"
  • Note:


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    Legacy: The Saga of a Jewish German Family across Time and Circumstance
    By Werner L. Frank

    p. 912

    28. R. Avraham Yehoshua [10] Heschel (R. Jakob [9] Lubliner, R. Efraim Naftali [8] Hirsch, R. Yosef [7] Yona, [? bat Jona] [6] Weil, R. Jona [5], R. Jakob Yokel [4], R. Meir (MAHARA''M)[3], R. Jakob ben Yehuda [2], R. Yehuda[1]) was born 1596, and died Abt. 1663 in Cracow. He married (1) Hesia Isserlis, daughter of R. Moshe Lazars Isserles. She died Abt. 1649. He married (2) Dina Wahl Katzenellenbogen (Source: Unbroken Chain, Ch 9.) 1651, daughter of R. Katzenellenbogen and [?] Isserles.

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    From http://www.jewishgen.org/rabbinic/journal/weil_chart2.htm

    R. Avraham Yehoshua Heschel, b. 1596; d. Abt. 1663, Cracow; m. (1) Hesia Isserlis; d. Abt. 1649; m. (2) Dina Wahl Katzenellenbogen (Source: Unbroken Chain, Ch 9.), 1651.

    Notes for R. Avraham Yehoshua Heschel:

    Rabbi in Brisk, Lublin; escaped to Vienna in 1656; Chief Rabbi in Krakov beginning 1655, after the Chmelnitzki Progroms and the Swedish War, rebuilt the Jewish community; so learned and intellectual that he was called Rabbi Rabbi Heschel.

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    The Great Jewish Cities of Central and Eastern Europe
    By Eli Valley

    p. 331

    Abraham Joshua Heschel (d. 1663)

    Not to be confused with the famous twentieth-century theologian, this Abraham Joshua Heschel was one of the last great talmudists in Cracow in the seventeenth century. Precocious from the start, he began as a teacher in Brisk, then followed his rabbi-father to Lublin in 1630 and after several years succeeded him as the head of the renowned Lublin yeshivah and chief rabbi. When Rabbi Yomtov Lippman Heller (see below) died in 1654, Rabbi Heschel became Cracow's chief rabbi and head of the Cracow yeshivah.

    He didn't stay long. In 1655 the Polish-Swedish war compelled many Jews to flee Cracow; Rabbi Heschel ended up in Mikulov, the heart of Jewish Moravia, and later Vienna. All this time, he continued to act as chief-rabbi-in-absentia for Cracow's transplanted Jewry. During his travels he solicited massive assistance for victims of the notorious Chmielnicki pogroms, which ravaged Jewish communities throughout Galicia. It was even said that Rabbi Heschel had an audience with the Austrian monarch. As for his rabbinical decisions, Rabbi Heschel became known for his leniency as well as his matter-of-fact terseness.

    Rabbi Heschel returned to a burnt-out Cracow in 1660. The Jewish Community was in terrible disrepair and Rabbi Heschel himself had lost his sight. During the Calahora show-trial (see below), Rabbi Heschel, already quite frail, was brought to Piotrikow as a witness for the defense. The emotional strain of the show trial, as well as the torture he likely endured during his statements, was too much for the blind rabbi to bear. Just before the trial ended, in December 1663, Rabbi Heschel passed away.

    A beautiful verse from the Torah was connected to Rabbi Heschel: "I will be standing there before you on the rock ..." (Exodus 17:6). The passage describes how Moses struck water from a rock during the wanderings in the wilderness and is linked to Rabbi Heschel because he supplied the Jews with support, both spiritually and materially. The gematriah, or numerical sum, works even better. The gematriah of the first four words in Hebrew is equivalent to Rabbi Heschel's name. The gematriah of the last two words is equivalent to "Cracow." So it was a biblical verse tailor-made for Rabbi Heschel.

    Rabbi Heschel's second marriage was to Dinah, one of the granddaughters of Saul Wahl. Saul Wahl was the Jewish merchant who, according to legend, served as king of Poland for just one night.

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    Encyclopedia Judaica
    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_08874.html

    HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA BEN JACOB (d. 1664), talmudic scholar of Lithuania and Poland. His father was rabbi of the community of Brest-Litovsk and head of its yeshivah, where Abraham Joshua became a teacher as a young man. In 1630 his father was appointed rabbi of Lublin and head of the yeshivah, where Abraham Joshua again assisted him. After his father's death in 1644, he succeeded him as head of the yeshivah. Some scholars claim that he also inherited the rabbinic position, others that he became rabbi of Lublin only in 1650 after the death of Naphtali Katz, who was his father's successor. In 1654, Abraham Joshua became rabbi and head of the yeshivah of Cracow, succeeding the famous Yom Tov Lipmann *Heller.

    Heschel was a wealthy man, of outstanding piety, and his reputation as a teacher attracted numerous students. A number of them became famous in their own right, among them *Shabbetai b. Meir ha-Kohen, Aaron Samuel *Koidanover, Gershon *Ashkenazi, and Hillel of Brest Litovsk. His teaching methods were based on dialectics (pilpul). Heschel's renown as a legal authority spread far and questions were addressed to him from all parts of Europe. Although in many cases he was reluctant to give decisions, when he did, they were brief, logical, and to the point. During the Chmielnicki persecutions many cases of *agunot came before him, and Heschel exercised considerable leniency in dealing with them. In one such instance, involving a certain Jacob (grandfather of Jacob *Emden), who was missing after an attack on Vilna, witnesses gave evidence that he had been killed by the Cossacks, and Heschel decided that the wife could remarry; six months later Jacob returned, whereupon Heschel resolved that he would refrain in the future from giving decisions in such matters (see Megillat Sefer by Jacob Emden (1897), 7; and J.M. Zunz, Ir ha-?edek (1874), 111). He was commissioned by the communities of Poland to solicit aid from the wealthy Jewish communities of Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia for the victims of the Chmielnicki massacres. Heschel was received everywhere with great respect, and his mission was crowned with success. He was supposedly even received by the emperor of Austria who accorded him great honor. Heschel died in Cracow.

    His commentaries on the Sefer Mitzvot Gadol of *Moses of Coucy were published in its Kapost edition in 1807; they are short and logical, and reveal a fine command of the Hebrew language. Aaron Kelniker, a student of Heschel's in Lublin, published a work, Toledot Aharon (Lublin, 1682), containing some of his teacher's novellae on Bava Kamma, Bava Me?ia, and Bava Batra, compiled from lecture notes. Later editions were entitled ?iddushei Halakhot (Offenbach, 1723; etc.). In the preface, Kelniker briefly described the famous yeshivah of Lublin during his period of studies there under Heschel.

    The ?anukkat ha-Torah of E.J. Ersohn (1900) contains 600 of Heschel's homilies on the Bible, gathered from different rabbinic sources of the 17th and early 18th centuries. Events connected with Heschel and his time are recorded by the author in the appendix, Kunteres Aharon, which, although containing some legends, also includes much material of historical value. Some of Heschel's responsa are to be found in works of his contemporaries. His novellae and a commentary on the Shul?an Arukh are still in manuscript (see Kunteres Aharon, 103).

    BIBLIOGRAPHY:

    J.M. Zunz, Ir ha-?edek (1874), 104-14; Kaufmann, in: MGWJ, 39 (1895), 556; E.J. Ersohn, ?anukkat ha-Torah (1900); Halpern, Pinkas, 84, n. 1.

    [Shlomo Eidelberg]

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    According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Fleckeles family of Prague is connected to his family by marriage. (entry for Fleckeles)

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    From http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=848&letter=C&search=heschel

    Nathan was succeeded as "rosh metibta" by R. Joshua Höschel b. Joseph of Wilna, who died in 1648; and R. Joel, who died in 1640, was succeeded (1644) by R. Yom-Tob Lipman Heller four years later, who also succeeded R. Joshua, dying in 1654. Rabbi Joshua Höschel ben Saul [error:Joshua Höschel ben Saul is the grandson of Rabbi Joshua Höschel ben Jacob] (known as "Reb Heschele") of Lublin became rabbi of Cracow the same year, dying in 1664. He was succeeded by R. Aryeh Löb b. Zachariah, "the prophet" who died in 1671.

    [Warning: The link in the online text for "Rabbi Joshua Höschel ben Saul" goes to the entry for his identically-named grandson.]

    _______________________________________________________________________




    Father: Jacob (Chief Rabbi) HESCHEL b: ABT 1575 in Volodymyr-Volynsky (Ludmir), Ukraine
    Mother: Deborah KATZENELLENBOGEN b: ABT 1580

    Marriage 1 Hesia bat Moshe Lazers ISSERLES b: ABT 1597 in Brest-Litovsk (Brisk), Belarus
      Children
      1. Has Children Saul (Rabbi) b Abraham Joshua b Jacob HESCHEL b: ABT 1618 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland)
      2. Has No Children Jakob (Rabbi) HESCHEL b: ABT 1617 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland)
      3. Has Children [?] bat Avraham Yehoshua HESCHEL b: ABT 1622 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland)

      Marriage 2 Dinah Wahl KATZENELLENBOGEN b: ABT 1625
      • Married: 1651
      Children
      1. Has Children Issachar (Rabbi) Beirish Babad HESCHEL b: ABT 1649 in Lublin, Województwo Lubelskie (Lublin Voivodeship), Polska (Poland)
      2. Has Children [?] bat Joshua HESCHEL b: ABT 1652 in Kraków (English: Cracow, German: Krakau), Poland

      Sources:
      1. Author: Eli Valley
        Title: The great Jewish cities of Central and Eastern Europe
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: p. 331
      2. Author: Editors: Cecil Roth, Geoffrey Wigoder, Raphaël Posner, Louis I. Rabinowitz
        Title: Encyclopaedia Judaica
        Publication: Name: Keter Publishing House, 1978;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: 2007 ed., vol. 11, p. 455
        Text: JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JACOB (1595-1663), Polish rabbi, also called "the Rebbi Reb Hoeschel." Joshua Hoeschel was apparently born in Lublin. He studied under his father *Jacob b. Ephraim Naphtali Hirsch.
      3. Author: Dr. Leopold Löwenstein
        Title: Blaetter für jüdische Geschichte und Litteratur
        Publication: Name: Verlag des "Israelit", Mainz;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: p. 119
      4. Author: Werner L. Frank
        Title: Legacy: The Saga of a Jewish German Family across Time and Circumstance
        Publication: Name: Avotaynu Foundation, 2003;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: p. 912
        Text: 28. R. Avraham Yehoshua [10] Heschel (R. Jakob [9] Lubliner, R. Efraim Naftali [8] Hirsch, R. Yosef [7] Yona, [? bat Jona] [6] Weil, R. Jona [5], R. Jakob Yokel [4], R. Meir (MAHARA''M)[3], R. Jakob ben Yehuda [2], R. Yehuda[1]) was born 1596, and died Abt. 1663 in Cracow. He married (1) Hesia Isserlis, daughter of R. Moshe Lazars Isserles. She died Abt. 1649. He married (2) Dina Wahl Katzenellendbogen (Source: Unbroken Chain, Ch 9.) 1651, daughter of R. Katzenellenbogen and [?] Isserles.
      5. Author: Editors: Cecil Roth, Geoffrey Wigoder, Raphaël Posner, Louis I. Rabinowitz
        Title: Encyclopaedia Judaica
        Publication: Name: Keter Publishing House, 1978;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: 1972 ed., vol. 17, p. 135
        Text: R. Joshua Hoeschel b. Jacob, known popularly as the "Rebbi Reb Hoeschel" (d. 1663)
      6. Author: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft des Judentums (Germany)
        Title: Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums
        Publication: Name: Verlag von Wilhelm Koebner, Breslau, 1901;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: vol. 39, p. 140
      7. Author: Julius Fürst
        Title: Bibliotheca Judaica: Bibliographisches Handbuch der Gesammten Jüdischen Literatur
        Publication: Name: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1849;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

        Page: vol. 1, p. 388
      8. Title: The Jewish Encyclopedia
        Publication: Name: 1901 - 1906;
        Note:
        Source Medium: Book

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