Joel Hager's Southern West Virginia Research

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  • ID: I76956
  • Name: Jonas Friend
  • Given Name: Jonas
  • Surname: Friend
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: Abt 1730
  • Death: 15 Nov 1807 in Friend's Fort, Randolph County, (West) Virginia
  • _UID: 33AB5A18C2664EAFADC4617027739E948305
  • Change Date: 8 Jul 2004
  • Note:
    by Warren Skidmore

    Jonas Friend, one of the earliest settlers in both Pendleto n and Randolph Counties, was of Swedish descent. His grandf ather, Anders Nilsson Frande, was born about 1659 at Upland , Delaware (then Chester) County, Pennsylvania, and died ab out 1740 near Harper's Ferry. (l ) His father Israel Friend , who was born at Upland by 1693, started to mine iron or e in 1734 on a tract of land on the Potomac River about tw o miles north of Harper's Ferry in what is now Jefferson Co unty, West Virginia. He may have had a furnace in Virgini a for smelting the ore, or taken it across the Potomac to h is mill on Antietam Creek in Maryland where there was a fur nace later. (2) He is spoken of as a Friend (Quaker) in thi s period. (3) Benjamin Winslow's "Plan of the Upper Part o f Patomack River called Cohongorooto, surveyed in the yea r 1736" shows the Friends living in that year west of the P otomac four miles south of the mouth of Undietum Creek. (4 ) If the mill was not Jonas Friend's place of birth it ma y be taken as certain that he spent his childhood there.

    His father-in-law Joseph Skidmore, who had come to wester n Maryland by 1742 from Murderkill Hundred in Kent County , Delaware, lived no great distance away. He had formally a cquired title to a plantation called Monican from Corneliu s O'Neale on 11 June 1748 for 50 preparatory to moving t o Virginia, but had probably lived there much earlier. Moni can is described as being at the head of the Little Antieta m. (5)

    Jonas Friend went with the Skidmores to what is now Pendlet on County perhaps at the time of his father-in-law's secon d trip south through the gap at Harper's Ferry. (6) He an d Sarah Skidmore had married before 9 September 1754 when t hey returned a deed to Winchester selling 66 1/2 acres to S imeon Rice for 100. This was his share of the 300 acres th at he and his two brothers had inherited from their fathe r Israel Friend near Shepherdstown in Jefferson County. (7 ) In this deed Jonas and Sarah Friend are called "late of F rederick County in the colony of Virginia but now of August a County." Their eldest child, a son Joseph, was born proba bly in 1755 or soon after and named for his grandfather Ski dmore. (8)

    The middle brother Jacob Friend followed Jonas soon after t o what is now Pendleton County, where he married Sarah's si ster Elizabeth Skidmore. (9) Charles Friend, who was much y ounger than his brothers Jonas and Jacob, was still a mino r in 1761. (10) He did not sell his share of his father's l and until 11 May 1776 while it was still in Berkeley Count y (Jefferson County was not formed until 1801), and then di sappears. (11)

    Jonas and his brothers had two sisters, Catherine (of who m nothing more is known), and Mary who married Captain Abe l Westfall. He later served in the Eighth Virginia Regimen t during the Revolution. The Westfalls went with his brothe rs to Knox County, Indiana, where he was nominated as a del egate to the first Indiana Territorial Convention in 1802 . The balloting survives (he was not elected), and we fin d that while Abel voted for himself one of his nephews cas t his four votes for the opposition (which included Willia m Henry Harrison, the big winner). (12) The Westfalls wer e back in Ross county, Ohio, in October 1805 when Abel answ ered a complaint about her father's land in Virginia wher e they had lived in 1778. (13) Mary Westfall was dead befor e 3 August 1811 when Abel Westfall (back in Indiana) ha d a licence in Knox County to marry Polly Rumsour. (14) Abe l Westfall himself had died before 30 May 1818 when his bro ther Cornelius applied in Knox County for a pension for hi s service in the Revolution in his brother's company.

    Jonas Friend was a Corporal in the French and Indian War se rving under Captain Abraham Smith, and was also employed a s a carpenter in the rebuilding of Fort Seybert after the m assacre there, for which he was paid 1 2sh 6d. (15) Jona s Friend was present later on 19 August 1761 when Daniel Sm ith sold the property at a vendue sale belonging to Jacob S ivers (Seybert) who had perished with most of his family a t the fort. (16)

    He bought 44 acres, part of a tract of 350 acres on the Nor th Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac which had been p atented to Robert Green on 12 January 1746, from the Gree n heirs on 29 May 1761. The consideration was a modest 8 l 5sh. (17) He was appointed a Constable in place of Peter Ve neman on 17 November 1767. (18) The constables had essentia lly the same duties as the sheriff, but earned small fees f or executing writs and performing the other chores of thei r office. More importantly an appointment often proved to b e the first step in the career of an ambitious local politi cian.

    He had moved by 1772 to the Tygart River Valley in what bec ame Randolph County. However the Friends didn't dispose o f their land in Pendleton County until 22 May 1776 when the y got a very good price (105) from Charles Powers for wha t must have been his 44 greatly improved acres on the Nort h Fork. (19)

    Sarah Friend's father and a part of her brothers followed s oon after to what is now Elkins. Edward Skidmore, Jonas' br other-in-law, and his young wife had come out to Virginia b y 1772 bringing with him from Duck Creek Hundred in Newcast le County, Delaware, Benjamin and William Cleaver, Joseph D onoho, and probably Jesse Hamilton. These men settled soo n after in the Tygart River Valley. (20) Four of the grou p from Delaware (William Cleaver, Edward Skidmore, Donoho , and Hamilton) entered into a partnership with Jonas Frien d to purchase a certificate for 1000 acres from James Walke r, a veteran of the French and Indian War, who had a warran t for 3000 acres. Jonas Friend, his teen-age son Joseph, Ed ward Skidmore, and the other three partners promptly locate d an attractive site at the mouth of Leading Creek and ha d their 1000 acres surveyed. They built Friend's Fort soo n after which became the chief adornment of the tract. Th e five partners perfected their title on 1 November 1782 i n Monongalia County.

    David Armstrong has traced the early land titles in the mod ern city of Elkins and has published his findings. (21) Fro m his work we learn that the partners became the first resi dents there below Porter Avenue. Hamilton settled on that p ortion of the survey that included the present day railroa d yards, Harrison Avenue, both hospital buildings, Wilson , Central and Main Streets, the junior high school, and th e Armory. Hamilton's cabin may have been on the site of th e Youth Health Service mansion across from the Third Ward A partments. Donoho's settlement was next below Hamilton's i n the present day Oak Grove Addition. Edward Skidmore live d below them, and Jonas Friend had Harrison Avenue approxim ately west of the State Police Barracks, as well as Goff St reet, the Third Ward School and the Mall, and part of Cryst al Springs.

    The fort itself was at Crystal Springs near the Ivan Coberl y house. (22) It was undoubtedly modeled after Fort Seyber t which Jonas Friend had helped rebuild. The foundation o f the fort could still be traced as late as 1915, but the a rea has since been graded and improved. This leveling effec tively destroyed what was once there in the way of posthole s or other evidences. The fort is supposed to be have bee n directly over the present Tastee Freez store at Crystal S prings, still the highest point in the area.

    Jonas Friend appeared at the store belonging to Felix Gilbe rt in Rockingham County on Saturday, 4 February 1775. Gilbe rt, who made periodic trips to London to stock his emporium , preceeded Wal-Mart in the area by about 200 years. Frien d made only two purchases, 48 1/8 gallons of rum (for whic h he paid 10 9sh 9 1/2d) and eight kegs (at 2sh 6d each) t o store the rum for traveling. Nearly 50 gallons of rum wou ld keep a solitary drinker supplied for several months, an d it is more likely that he was an affable host back at th e fort. Rum was imported (then as now) from the West Indie s to Virginia and was more highly prized than the local whi skey. In addition to the expense it would have been a consi derable job to cart this much cargo over the poor roads bac k to Leading Creek, although they were probably frozen at t his date.

    On 16 September 1775 Jonas Friend was appointed a Gentlema n Justice for Augusta County and he and Colonel Benjamin Wi lson (appointed on the same day) became the first two repre sentatives of the Virginia county system of law and governm ent west of the Alleghenies. Their commissions came up fo r review at intervals and both were invariably confirmed b y the governor until they were finally retired on 19 Decemb er 1781 from the Augusta Commission as they now lived outsi de that county. (23) He had filed a claim in the new Monong alia County for supplies furnished the Revolutionary army b ut apparently did little other business before the court si tting at Morgantown. (24)

    On 15 October 1776 the inhabitants of the Tygart Valley, Ed ward Skidmore and Jonas Friend among them, signed a petitio n to the House of Delegates asking that three companies o f rangers be stationed in the valley to protect them. Accor ding to their petition they numbered about 150 families spr ead over 50 miles of the valley and about 80 miles from an y relief in case of an emergency.

    One incident at Friend's Fort will suffice to show that the ir anxiety was not exaggerated in view of the perils of th e time. On an evening in April 1781 Alexander West, a neigh bor, was visiting at the fort. He and Jonas were sitting ou tside when West saw what he thought was an Indian in the sh adows. He started for his gun but Jonas Friend stopped hi m saying the figure in the dark was probably one of his "ya ller boys." Both West and Friend had fierce dogs, and not a ltogether certain of the identity of the figure, the dogs w ere set loose. However they flew at one another and the int ruder vanished into the forest. West wanted to alarm the se ttlers that night, but Friend talked him out of it. The da y following an Indian raiding party descended on the commun ity and killed three of five men returning from the settlem ent which is now Clarksburg. From there they moved to Leadi ng Creek where they destroyed most of a colony of six famil ies taking three prisoners. This was the most disastrous In dian visitation on record in the Tygart River Valley. Ther e was now little doubt that West had seen a scout from th e raiding party and Jonas Friend condemned himself bitterl y for not letting West act on his impulse to alarm the sett lers. (25)

    He and Benjamin Wilson, William White, and William Cleave r appraised the estate of Joseph Skidmore, Senior, on 19 Ju ne 1778. (26) His father-in-law had died at what is now Sou th Elkins and was probably the first burial in what becam e a small family cemetery near the former Odd Fellow's Home . (27)

    Edward Skidmore, the Cleavers, and several other families l eft the Tygart Valley for what is now Nelson County, Kentuc ky, in 1779, according to the pension application of Willia m Cleaver filed in 1832 from Grayson County, Kentucky. On 2 4 June 1782 Edward Skidmore was drafted from Nelson Count y as a Sergeant in the company of Captain James Davis to as sist in the construction of Fort Nelson (possibly modelle d in part on Friend's Fort back in Virginia) at what is no w the city of Louisville. He was stationed there until Jul y 13th when he was paid and discharged. Edward Skidmore's w ill is dated a few months later on 17 October 1782. He wa s then "in a weak and low state of body." He left all of hi s worldly affairs to his wife Deborah. (28) Excepted only w as my "rifle gun, powder horn and pouch" which were to be k ept for his young son Benjamin. Edward Skidmore seems to ha ve died soon a few days later, although his will was not re corded in Jefferson County (which then included Nelson) unt il 6 August 1783. Previous to the recording of the will hi s widow had traveled to Louisville to enter 400 acres of la nd that Edward Skidmore had a warrant for on the south sid e of Beech Fork beginning at the east corner of James Nalls ' survey.

    Nothing further has been learned of the widow Deborah Skidm ore. Neither she nor his sons ever appear to have sold th e Beech Fork tract, and they also abandoned their interes t in Edward Skidmore's land back at Elkins.

    At a court held at Clarksburg on 22 September 1784 Jonas Fr iend was appointed a Surveyor of a public highway from hi s own house to Eberman Creek. He was to work the tithable s on Leading Creek, both sides of the Tygart Valley River , up Eberman's Creek, and across the river to Hezekiah Rose crances, and to keep it in lawful repair. (29)

    He manumitted a slave, perhaps one of his "yaller" boys not iced earlier, in 1791: "Randolph County, Virginia

    December 30, 1791

    I do hereby certify that I have set the bearer hereof, Negr o Tom, at full liberty from servitude to act and do for him self as a free man, as witness my hand the day and date abo ve written.

    Jonah Friend" (30)

    On 26 March 1792 the Randolph County Court ordered that Jon as Friend be exempted from laboring on the highway, and tha t Cornelius Westfall be appointed as surveyor of highway i n his place. (31) At some point the justices probably relie ved him from paying his tax as a tithable (since he disappe ars from the early tax lists several years before his death ), but this does not seem to be on record.

    Jonas and Sarah Friend divided the 1000 acre tract on 25 Ma y 1795 and sold 300 acres to their son Andrew Friend for 1 000. The remaining 700 acres of the tract was deeded by Jon as Friend on 22 August 1796 for $1.00 to the remaining fou r partners "my part being laid off and a deed of Bargain an d sale made unto my son Andrew for three hundred acres." (3 2) Years later on 28 September 1801 Cornelius Westfall brou ght a suit in Randolph County against William Cleaver, Jona s Friend, Benjamin Skidmore (heir at law of Edward Skidmore , deceased), Joseph Donohue, and Jesse Hamilton to try to f orce the defendants "to make a good and legal deed for th e said lands in the bill mentioned at their proper costs an d charges." (33)

    Jonas Friend perhaps also had the unhappy distinction of su ffering from Randolph County's first recorded case of senil e dementia. His declining years are reported by Hu Maxwell:

    "Jonas Friend lived to be very old, and in his last years h is mind was very weak, and his memory existed nearly altoge ther in the past. He fancied that he was still a soldier fi ghting the British in defense of his country; and with hi s knapsack on his back and his gun on his shoulder he woul d go from house to house, halting occasionally, as if on pi cket duty, when he would raise his gun and go through the a ct of firing, exclaiming in exultation that there was one R ed Coat less." (34)

    He is said to have died on 15 November 1807 at Friend's For t, and his wife Sarah Friend followed him in death in the y ear following. (35)

    On 18 August 1784 the newly constituted Harrison County cou rt ordered Jacob Westfall to make a list of all the white p eople living in his former militia district which include d the Wilmoth's Settlement on Leading Creek. Jonas Friend w as head of a household that included six white persons, on e dwelling, and two other buildings. He was the only tithab le in the household, so it may be taken as certain that hi s son Joseph Friend was in the west fighting Indians. (36 ) In addition to the parents the other four white souls i n the household must have been his son Andrew and his thre e daughters Sarah, Nancy, and Mary.

    The birth of Captain Joseph Friend has already been noticed . He married Elizabeth Davisson of Clarksburg on 16 Novembe r 1786. She produced his only daughter Mary, and died soo n after. On 26 May 1800 William Wilson, Senior, made oath " that in or about December 1, 1798, Joseph Friend by deed ex ecuted in the presence of two credable witnesses did gran t the custody and tuition of his daughter Polly until she a rrived at the age of 18 years to the said William Wilson wh ich deed is now lost or mislaid." (37) She married Willia m Arters (Arthur) on 1 February 1802 at what must have bee n the tender age of about 15 and became his widow in 1838 . She died in Webster County in 1865.

    Bill Rice of Elkins has found an interesting entry in the r ecords at Clarksburg relating to one of the earliest tract s acquired by Joseph Friend. In 1784, immediately after Har rison County was formed, it was put on record that "Josep h Friend, assignee of Joseph Hastings who is assignee of Ch arles Grigsby enters 200 acres on the west side of the Tyga rt Valley River to include the Mingo Cabin." The exact loca tion of this tract has not been traced, but it shows the ty pe of housing used by the native American in central West V irginia before the coming of the white man. Although thei r presence in the area was sporadic and never very dense, J oseph Friend's entry is also important since it documents t he ethnic subfamily of the natives who once occupied the ar ea. (38)

    Joseph Friend will be best remembered as an Indian fighter . He served throughout the American Revolution, and raise d a company of volunteers attached to the regiment commande d by Colonel Zackquill Morgan which went to the support o f General George Rogers Clarke. Captain Joseph Friend signe d vouchers to Benjamin Cutright and others in May 1781 fo r beef to be used by the Monongalia County volunteers on th e march west to join Clarke. (39)

    In 1791 he was with General St. Clair at his defeat at th e hands of the Miami Indians, and was present again on a ha ppier occasion (so far as the white settlers were concerned ) at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Here in August 1794, alo ng the Maumee River near Toledo, Ohio, an army commanded b y General Anthony Wayne (in a battle lasting only 40 minute s) dealt 2000 Indian warriors a crushing defeat from whic h they never recovered. Joseph Friend was on this occasio n appointed by General Wayne as the Captain of the Spy Comp any. It was his last battle, for while he "often faced th e foe, and stood amidst the danger of Many hard fought batt les, yet he never received a Scar or a wound from a ball , a sword, or a tommyhawk... but had the Misfortune while a cting as Captain of the Spies under the command of Gen. Way ne to break the rim of his belly."

    He owned 216 acres including the salt well where the town o f Webster Springs now stands, and had moved there with hi s son-in-law in 1819. He and James Dyer were for a time par tners in a salt making business. (40) However, the pain fro m his hernia increased in his old age, and by 1822 he was u nable to earn his own livelihood and had "nearly burnt th e lamp of time allotted to man." He signed a deed on 3 Dece mber 1826 in Nicholas County (which included what became We bster), and is said to have died there the year after. (41)

    His sisters, the daughters of Jonas Friend, should be menti oned briefly. Sarah was born in 1759, and married Major Wil liam Wilson (1754-1851) on 19 August 1779. She died on 22 O ctober 1832 and they are buried in the Casner Cemetery on t he John Yoho farm one mile north of Mt. Ephraim in Seneca T ownship, Noble County, Ohio. (42) Nancy married John Curren ce (1753-1845) and died on 26 September 1851 aged 92 years , 3 months, and 21 days. They are buried in the Currence-Wa lmsley Cemetery about four miles south of Huttonsville. Mar y, clearly the youngest daughter, married Robert Clark on 1 9 February 1794 in Randolph County. They disappear from th e neighborhood and may have gone west.

    Captain Andrew Friend, the younger son, married Eleanor , a daughter of Peter McCall, in Randolph County on 1 Febru ary 1802. He was appointed a Captain in the room of Bosto n Hoskins, resigned, on 27 May 1807, and a Gentleman Justic e for Randolph County in 1814 by the governor. (43) He wa s sitting on the bench on 26 March 1816 when it was "ordere d that the Sheriff pay unto Andrew Friend One Dollar & 30 C ts. which was Collected from him for a tax on a Mill whic h he did Not possess. (44)

    There was no probate on the estate of Andrew Friend who die d a few months later, before 21 April 1817 when a survey wa s done for his four heirs Joseph, Sarah, Levina, and Jona s Friend. They were now possessed of 100 acres in what is n ow Braxton County "including the place they live on... on B en's Run." (45) If Eleanor survived her husband she is no t found as the head of a family in 1820, and no second marr iage has been found for her. On 24 October 1850 Levisa Frie nd of Kanawha County, and Jonas Friend together with Jona s and Thomas Canter of Mason County, Virginia, joined toget her to sell this 100 acres to Samuel S. Williams. (46)

    Of the four children of Andrew Friend named in 1817 only Jo nas and his sister Sarah have been traced further. Jonas, t he first born, was living in 1850 a farmer aged 47 with hi s wife Tempy and a large family of children in Mason County . They apparently moved to adjoining Jackson County, West V irginia, but in 1880 he and Temperance were in Milton Towns hip, Jackson County, Ohio. In 1880 Jonas Friend's occupatio n is reported as "digs ore"-a hard life for an elderly man . (47) Neither he or Temperance (nor any of their children ) are found buried in Milton Township. His sister Sarah app arently married the James Canter who was head of a family i n 1840 in Mason County, and it was her two eldest sons an d heirs, orphans, who conveyed their interest in the trac t on Kanawha Run in 1850. Jonas and Thomas Canter were bot h enumerated in 1880 in Union District, Jackson County, Wes t Virginia.

    The other daughter, Levisa Friend, who is said to have bee n living in 1850 in Kanawha County, in not found enumerate d anywhere in Virginia (as a spinster) in the census take n in that year. She is given as a grantor in the deed of 2 4 October 1850, but (most curiously) neither she nor her br other Jonas signed it. (48) No marriage has been found fo r her, and the bond for the marriage of her brother Jonas a nd his wife Temperance has also not yet surfaced in West Vi rginia or Ohio.

    1. Peter S. Craig, "The Family of Nils Larsson Frande (Fri end)." I am grateful to David Armstrong for the loan of a c opy of this manuscript (draft of 42 pages, dated 5 August 1 988). It was obtained from the Lester D. Friend Library, P . O. Box 96, Friendsville, MD 21531. Nils had married Ann a Andersdotter and was in the New Sweden settlement by 1650 , perhaps coming on the Swan in 1648.

    2. Grace L. Tracey and John P. Dern, Pioneers of Old Monoc acy, the Early Settlement of Frederick County, Maryland, 17 21-1743 (Baltimore, 1987), 55. There was a furnace called K eep Tryst later on Antietam Creek. Israel Friend sold the m ill site of 100 acres on the west side of the Cohongo Rive r (granted to him by letters patent in 1730) for 25 to Wil liam Stroop on S May 1746. (Frederick County Deeds, I, 264.)

    3. Hopewell Friends History, 1734-1914, Frederick County , Virginia (Strasburg, 1936), 166.

    4. The original of this map is at the Enoch Pratt Free Lib rary in Baltimore. See also John P. Dern's "The Upper Potom ac in 1736" in the Western Maryland Genealogist, II, 86-7 . On 10 January 1727 Israel Friend had taken the precautio n of buying this land from Cunnawchahala and five other Ind ians (styled "Kings and Rulers of the five nations"), toget her with all other appurtenances (fishing, fowling, hawking , and hunting) for which he agreed to pay to part of them t wo ears of Indian corn every year if demanded.

    5. Warren Skidmore, Thomas Skidmore (Scudamore), 1605-1684 , of Westerleigh, Gloucestershire, and Fairfield, Connectic ut, 2nd edition (Akron, Ohio, 1985), 48-9. (A revised and e nlarged third edition is in preparation.) Although Joseph S kidmore is not known to have been in Maryland until 1742 (w hen he signed a petition asking that a new parish be forme d to serve the residents in what is now Frederick and Washi ngton Counties) his name last appears on the levy lists o f Kent County, Delaware, in 1736.

    6. Joseph Skidmore and his wife, who had gone south to Pen dleton County in 1749, were back in what is what is now Was hington County, Maryland, on 1 October 1753 when they signe d a deed selling Monican. (Frederick -County, Maryland, Dee ds, E, 320-1.

    7. Frederick County, Virginia, Deeds, III, 372. It was par t of the 300 acres granted to Israel Friend on 3 October 17 34 (anciently in old Orange County) on the south side of th e Potomac River, and devised in his last will (dated 12 Aug ust 1749) to his sons Jonas, Jacob, and Charles. Jacob, th e second son, was to have the part where Israel then lived . Charles, the youngest son, had the remaining 120 acres. H e did not sell his inheritance until 11 May 1776 while it w as still in Berkeley County; Jefferson County was not forme d until 1801. (Chalkley, II, 125.) Israel Friend's negroe s were to be equally divided among his three sons, and th e will was recorded on 5 June 1753. See also the William an d Mary College Quarterly, XI, 149.

    8. I have already dealt with Joseph Friend in a paper publ ished over 40 years ago. See "Captain Joseph Friend's Revol utionary Pension Application" in The Magazine of History an d Biography by the Randolph County Historical Society (Numb er Eleven, December 1954), 19-22. He stated that he was onl y 19 years old at the time he first served in the militia c ompany commanded by Captain Benjamin Wilson in 1776, and el sewhere that he was nearly 70 (probably a bit overstated) i n 1822.

    9. They settled about one mile north of Franklin on what i s still known as Friend's Run. Jacob Friend and his wife we re both living in Pendleton County as late as 10 December 1 817 when his will was signed. For this couple and their nin e children see my notes on "The Friend Family" in Pendleto n County, West Virginia, Past and Present (1991), 108-9. Ov erlooked in this account was their daughter Elizabeth, bor n in 1771, who married William Lawrence in 1791. Lawrence a pplied for a pension as a Revolutionary soldier in 1819 i n Pendleton County.

    10. Wilmer L. Kerns, Historical Records of Old Frederick a nd Hampshire Counties, Virginia (Revised Edition, 1992), 49 . Charles Friend, "orphan of Israel Friend," came into cour t to make a choice of John Valentine Howe as his guardian . (Frederick County Minute Book, 1761-63, page 152, at th e Virginia State Archives at Richmond.) It seems likely tha t Sarah, the widow of Israel Friend; was also dead by thi s time. Trissa Haefling of Warren, Ohio, tells me that noth ing has been discovered about Sarah Friend's family. She wa s to have her widow's third of his moveable estate. Catheri ne and Mary Friend, his two daughters, were also to hav e a divisional share.

    11. There were several Charles Friends in this period. H e is not found in any of the early tax lists for this par t of Virginia Nor is he the man who was a miller by 1800 i n Fairfield County, Ohio, or (as is sometimes said) the Cha rles Friend who died in November 1811 in Monroe County, Wes t Virginia. There was a Charles Friend who entered 126 acre s on Allegheny Mountain in Hampshire County in 1772, but h e belonged to the family in what is now Garrett County, Mar yland. He appears to be the Charles (dead 1796) who lef t a son and heir at law Gabriel Friend who was born in Garr ett County on 17 June 1761 and applied for a pension in 184 9 at the age of 90 as a Revolutionary soldier. His claim wa s rejected as he could not produce any living witness to te stify to his service, and died in 1863 at the age of 102. H e and his wife Jane (Bonnell) sold a part of his father Cha rles' land in Hampshire County on 10 March 1796 (Chalkley , II, 121-2.)

    12. Indiana Source Book, Material from The Hoosier Genealo gist, 1895-1988, compiled by Ruth Dorrel, VI,71-76.

    13. Chalkley, II, 125. They were then living (as tennant s of Peter Flick) on that part devised to her brother Charl es Friend, who had sold it to Flick two years earlier.

    14. Indiana Source Book, III. His younger brother Corneliu s Westfall (1756-1828) had married Sarah Rumsoner (1769-182 6), a widow, as his second wife on 12 January 1804 in Ros s County, Ohio. Ross County, Ohio Families, (Ross County Ge nealogical Society, 1982), III, 57-8. It likely that Sarah' s name was correctly Rumsouer and that she was nearly relat ed to the second wife of Abel Westfall. She brought two ste pchildren named Hale to Cornelius' household.

    15. Lloyd Dewitt Bockstruck, Virginia's Colonial Soldier s (Baltimore, 1988), 202, 205.

    16. Chalkley, III, 65

    17. Chalkley, III, 65. It is probable that land prices wer e very depressed since so many of the early settlers had fl ed after the Indian depravations in the area.

    18. Chalkley, I, 140.

    19. Augusta County Deeds, XXI, 456. See also Chalkley, III , 549.

    20. Both of the Cleavers later applied for pensions in Gra yson County, Kentucky. Benjamin Cleaver, aged 81, in his ap plication in 1832 stated that he had enlisted to fight Indi ans in the Tigers (sic) Valley in 1774.

    21. David Armstrong, "Thomas Skidmore: First Settler on Si te of Elkins," Hacker's Creek Journal, X, 98-101.

    22. The site of the fort was marked in 1926 by the John Ha rt Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Th e marker reads: "Near This Marker is the Site of Friend's F ort - Built in 1772, Jonas Friend and Joseph Friend Brave d the Wilderness and Established a Settlement on the Fronti er. Joseph Friend Was Later a Captain in the War of the Rev olution. Placed by John Hart Chapter, Daughters of the Amer ican Revolution, Elkins, West Virginia, 1926."

    23. Chalkle

    Father: Israel Friend b: Abt 1693 in Upland, Ridley Twp., Delaware County, Pennsylvania
    Mother: Sarah Bokavar b: Abt 1711 in Shawnee Nation

    Marriage 1 Sarah Skidmore b: Abt 1732 in Murderkill Hundred, Kent County, Delaware
    • Married: 9 Sep 1754
    • Change Date: 25 Sep 2005
    1. Has No Children Joseph Friend b: Abt 1755
    2. Has Children Andrew Friend b: Abt 1756 in West Augusta County, (West) Virginia
    3. Has No Children Sarah Friend b: Abt 1759 in Frederick County, Virginia
    4. Has Children Nancy Friend b: 5 Jun 1759 in Frederick County, Virginia
    5. Has No Children Mary Friend b: Bef 1772
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