1. Ulysses was born "Hiram Ulysses Grant". Although many believe he changed his name to "Ulysses Simpson Grant" the "Simpson" is not correct. According to Ulysses, the "S" meant nothing more than for him to be known as "U. S" Grant. 2. Ulysses was the eighteenth president of the United States. He graduated from West Point in 1843, and entered the United States regular army as a brevet second lieutenant. He was afterward promoted to captain, and served in the Mexican war under Generals Scott and Taylor. He participated in the battles of Palo Alto, Monterey, Vera Cruz and Molino del Rey. At the close of the war, Grant's company was sent to Oregon. 3. In 1854 he resigned his connection with the army, and settled near St. Louis, Missouri. In 1859 he removed to Galena, Illinois, and engaged in the leather trade until the breaking out of the rebellion. He then entered the Union army as colonel, and distinguished himself at the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Richmond and others. He was promoted from time to time, until February, 1864, when he received the commission of lieutenant-general from President Lincoln's own hand, and continued in the field until he received the sword which General Robert Edward Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865. 4. The Republican National Convention met at Chicago May 21, 1868. On the first ballot Grant was unanimously nominated for president, with Schuyler Colfax for vice-president. Being duly elected, they were inaugurated March 4, 1869. At the Republican National Convention held in Philadelphia June 5, 1872, President Grant was renominated by acclamation. Henry Wilson was nominated for vice-president. Being elected, they took the oath of office March 4, 1873. Ulysses completed his term of eight years as president, March 4, 1877. On May 17 he left Philadelphia for a tour around the world, and landed in San Francisco Sept. 20, 1879. 5. In the Republican National Convention in 1880, his name was presented as a candidate for president, and he received from 302 to 313 votes during the thirty-six ballots taken. He removed to New York city in 1881. Just previous to his death he wrote his memoirs, which were published in two volumes, and brought a large fortune to his widow. He completed this last work of his life but four days before his death. He was the author of "Report of the Armies of the United States" and "Personal Memoirs". 6. Chronology: 1828-1835, He attends subscription schools in Georgetown, Ohio and works on the family farm. He loves horses but hates the tan yard. May, 1839, Departs Ohio for West Point, New York. Grant spends the next four years at this school on the Hudson as a Cadet. June-August, 1841, Spends his furlough with his family in Bethel, Ohio. Grant later wrote, "Those ten weeks were shorter than one week at West Point." July 1, 1843, Grant graduates from West Point and is commissioned a brevet second Lieutenant. He is assigned to the Fourth Infantry in St. Louis, Jefferson Barracks. He meets Julia, his future wife, in February, 1844. 1846-1848, Grant fights in the Mexican War as a Quartermaster. 1848-1852, Following his honeymoon, Grant is assigned to Sackets Harbor, New York and Detroit, Michigan. Though blissfully happy in his private life, he is bored with the tedium of the peacetime army. He enjoys playing cards, accompanying Julia to dances and racing his mare, Cicotte. 1852-1854, He is sent to Humboldt Bay, California, in July, 1852. The next two years are ones of lonesome reflection for the Captain, who desperately misses his family. Being separated from Julia wreaks havoc with his psyche. With a martinet as a commanding officer, he begins to drink. August, 1854, He returns to Missouri after resigning his commission. 1854-1858, He works a 60-acre farm near St. Louis. He builds a home, sells cordwood and faces a bleak financial future. 1858-1859, Enters the Real Estate business with Julia's cousin. He proves incapable of collecting rents and is frequently late to work. Grant was never cut out to be a business man. May, 1860, He moves to Galena, Illinois and accepts a clerkship at his father's leather store at $800 a year. He lives in a comfortable, snug house on a hill, fronting a cemetary. June 17, 1861, Appointed a Colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry. August 17, 1861, Appointed Brigadier General. November 17, 1861, The Battle of Belmont, Grant's first engagement as General. Union forces raid the Confederate camp, but fall back when they counterattack. Grant's horse is shot from under him in the fight. Belmont is frequently described as a "fighting retreat" by Union forces, who gain much-needed experience under fire. February 16, 1862, Grant takes Fort Donelson, Tennessee, the first Union victory of strategic importance in the war. He becomes nationally famous with his dispatch, "No terms except immediate and unconditional surrender. I propose to move immediately upon your works." The jealous General Henry Halleck schemes behind Grant's back and spreads rumors that USG has "resumed his former bad habits." (A not-so-subtle reference to his drinking). April 6-7, 1862, The Battle of Shiloh. Though Grant and Sherman deny until their deaths that they were surprised here, the evidence is persuasive that they were. Grant's iron will and stubbornness resist disaster and the the Union holds the field on the second day. February, 1863-April, 1863, Unsuccessful moves around Vicksburg, Mississippi. May 12- May 17, 1863, Grant implements his grand strategy in taking Vicksburg by moving between two wings of the enemy and routing them both. In five days, he fights and defeats the enemy at Jackson, Champion Hill and Big Black River. His baggage consists of a toothbrush and comb. May 19-May 22, 1863, Grant attempts two frontal assaults upon Vicksburg, but both are repelled. The Union forces settle down to a siege. July 4, 1863, Surrender of Vicksburg - Grant's tour de force as a General, one of greatest military campaigns in history. Summer, 1863, Following a fall from a fractious horse in New Orleans, Grant spends the summer with his family in a house near Vicksburg. His leg is so badly swollen that he is bedridden for weeks and uses crutches until October. October 22, 1863, Takes command at Chattanooga, Tennessee. November 22-25, 1863, The Battle of Chattanooga, which culminates in Union victories at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, the Confederates are forced to retreat into Tennessee. March 9, 1864, Grant receives his commission as Lieutenant General from Lincoln and on March 12, he is appointed General in Chief of all U.S. armies. May 5-7, 1864, The Battle of the Wilderness. The two titans of the war, Grant and Lee, finally face each other. The result is a draw, with Union forces losing two times as many men as Lee. May 7-10, 1864, Spottsylvania campaign. Grant is once again thwarted by Lee and the results of the battle are inconclusive. On May 11, Grant writes another of his famous dispatches, "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." May 31-June 3, 1864, The Battle of Cold Harbor. In the main frontal assault on June 3, Grant loses 7,000 men in an hour. Lee loses 1,500. This was Grant's searing blunder as a General, and one which he freely admitted. Rebel losses during the campaign were 32,000, while the Federals lose 50,000. But Grant can obtain replacements and Lee cannot. April 9, 1865, Lee surrenders to Grant in the McLean House, Appomattox, Virginia. This is Grant's great hour, showcasing his delicacy and decency. When Union soldiers get too rambunctious, he quiets them. "The war is over," he said, "the Rebels are again our countrymen, and the best sign of rejoicing is to abstain from all demonstrations in the field." Fall, 1866, Grant refuses to be sent to Mexico by President Andrew Johnson, a wily and jealous man who wanted the popular General out of the way. These two fellows never hitched - very dissimilar. May 21, 1868, Nominated as a candidate for President by the Republican National Convention in Chicago. Grant does no campaigning and lolls about his Galena, Illinois home. March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1877, President of the United States. May, 1877-September, 1879, The Grant's make an around the world tour, and he is besieged by crowds throughout the journey. There is no itinerary and Grant enjoys himself hugely. He said, 'I feel like a boy out of school." Jesse accompanies his parents for some of the trip, and his place is then taken by Fred. Grant routinely plows through 15 course dinners, but actually loses weight on the trip - he returns to San Francisco weighing 159 pounds. His favorite countries on the trip were Japan and Switzerland. June 2-8, 1880, Grant is unsuccessful in securing the Republican nomination for President. It is difficult to know whether he actually coveted the Presidency again, though Julia certainly wanted to return to the White House. His friends and sons were convinced he didn't care and the evidence shows they were correct. Garfield eventually secures the nomination and the Presidency, and Grant claims he possesses "the backbone of an angleworm." December 24, 1883, Grant suffers a serious injury to his hip while slipping on the pavement outside his home. While handing a cab driver a 20 dollar bill, he falls heavily on his side. He is bedridden for weeks and walks with crutches or a cane for the rest of his life. May, 1884, The brokerage firm of Grant and Ward fails on Wall Street, losing the General and his family's fortune. Grant had been a silent partner in the firm with his son and Ferdinand Ward, the scoundrel who robbed the company and was eventually jailed. Days before the bankruptcy, Ward begs Grant for a loan of $150,000 to save the Marine bank. The General then asked William Vanderbilt to make him a personal loan, and he eventually repaid the millionaire with his war trophies and uniforms. These priceless bits of American are now in the Smithsonian, though only a fraction are displayed. The Grant and Ward failure plunges Grant into a prolonged depression. September, 1884, Grant's illness of the throat is diagnosed by doctors as cancer. In the Fall, he begins work on his Memoirs. January-March, 1885, The cancer spreads and completely debilitates the General. He is able to eat only liquid food in small portions. The pain is almost unendurable, but he valiantly writes on in an effort to provide for his family after his death. June 16, 1885, Moves with his family to Mt. McGregor, New York. The doctors advise the change because of the cooler climate. Grant is down to 120 pounds and is so weak he sometimes falls from his chair, but gallantly hides his suffering from his family. July 19, 1885, He finishes his Memoirs and lays down his pencil for the last time. July 23, 1885, At 8:06 in the morning, Grant dies, surrounded by his family and physicians. Fred stops the mantle clock and then fondly returns to the bedside to stroke his father's forehead a last time. Grant's Memoirs, a timeless classic, sell over 300,000 copies and earn Julia a staggering $450,000. Biography: Late in the administration of Andrew Johnson, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant quarreled with the President and aligned himself with the Radical Republicans. He was, as the symbol of Union victory during the Civil War, their logical candidate for President in 1868. When he was elected, the American people hoped for an end to turmoil. Grant provided neither vigor nor reform. Looking to Congress for direction, he seemed bewildered. One visitor to the White House noted "a puzzled pathos, as of a man with a problem before him of which he does not understand the terms." Born in 1822, Grant was the son of an Ohio tanner. He went to West Point rather against his will and graduated in the middle of his class. In the Mexican War he fought under Gen. Zachary Taylor. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Grant was working in his father's leather store in Galena, Illinois. He was appointed by the Governor to command an unruly volunteer regiment. Grant whipped it into shape and by September 1861 he had risen to the rank of brigadier general of volunteers. He sought to win control of the Mississippi Valley. In February 1862 he took Fort Henry and attacked Fort Donelson. When the Confederate commander asked for terms, Grant replied, "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." The Confederates surrendered, and President Lincoln promoted Grant to major general of volunteers. At Shiloh in April, Grant fought one of the bloodiest battles in the West and came out less well. President Lincoln fended off demands for his removal by saying, "I can't spare this man--he fights." For his next major objective, Grant maneuvered and fought skillfully to win Vicksburg, the key city on the Mississippi, and thus cut the Confederacy in two. Then he broke the Confederate hold on Chattanooga. Lincoln appointed him General-in-Chief in March 1864. Grant directed Sherman to drive through the South while he himself, with the Army of the Potomac, pinned down Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Finally, on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House, Lee surrendered. Grant wrote out magnanimous terms of surrender that would prevent treason trials. As President, Grant presided over the Government much as he had run the Army. Indeed he brought part of his Army staff to the White House. Although a man of scrupulous honesty, Grant as President accepted handsome presents from admirers. Worse, he allowed himself to be seen with two speculators, Jay Gould and James Fisk. When Grant realized their scheme to corner the market in gold, he authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to sell enough gold to wreck their plans, but the speculation had already wrought havoc with business. During his campaign for re-election in 1872, Grant was attacked by Liberal Republican reformers. He called them "narrow-headed men," their eyes so close together that "they can look out of the same gimlet hole without winking." The General's friends in the Republican Party came to be known proudly as "the Old Guard." Grant allowed Radical Reconstruction to run its course in the South, bolstering it at times with military force. After retiring from the Presidency, Grant became a partner in a financial firm, which went bankrupt. About that time he learned that he had cancer of the throat. He started writing his recollections to pay off his debts and provide for his family, racing against death to produce a memoir that ultimately earned nearly $450,000. Soon after completing the last page, in 1885, he died.
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